Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Abies procera

noble fir

synonym: Abies nobilis var. glauca

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Drthioraceae Delphinella abietis
flower borer Torymidae Megastigmus suspectus
leaf vagrant Miridae Atractotomus kolenatii
flower borer Geometridae Eupithecia abietaria
flower borer Torymidae Megastigmus pinus
flower borer Torymidae Megastigmus rafni
stem borer Curculionidae Cryphalus piceae
flower borer Pyralidae Dioryctria abietella
leaf gall Aphididae Mindarus abietinus
leaf gall summer generation Aphididae Dreyfusia nordmannianae
leaf vagrant summer generation Adelgidae Aphrastasia pectinatae
stem gall Aphididae Dreyfusia piceae
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara confinis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 1.viii.2022