Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Larix decidua

european larch

synonym: Larix europaea; Pinus larix

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem borer Curculionidae Magdalis duplicata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Anoplonyx destructor
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura imperfecta
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Anoplonyx apicalis
stem borer Siricidae Sirex juvencus
stem borer Siricidae Urocerus gigas
stem borer Siricidae Sirex cyaneus
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Anoplonyx ovatus
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Anoplonyx australis
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Anoplonyx pectoralis
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Cephalcia lariciphila
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Teleiodes saltuum
stem borer Tortricidae Cydia grunertiana
flower borer Tortricidae Retinia perangustana
leaf bud borer main Tortricidae Zeiraphera griseana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ditula angustiorana
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Acantholyda laricis
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora bufo
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora wesmaeli
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora friesei
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora laricis
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Archips oporana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Archips oporana
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora erichsonii
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora glauca
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis cinnamomeana
stem borer Tortricidae Cydia zebeana
flower borer Tortricidae Cydia illutana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Exapate duratella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Lozotaenia forsterana
leaf vagrant Tortricidae Ptycholomoides aeriferana
leaf vagrant Phytoptidae Boczekella laricis
stem borer Yponomeutidae Argyresthia laevigatella
stem borer Yponomeutidae Argyresthia illuminatella
fruit borer Anthomyiidae Strobilomyia infrequens
fruit borer Anthomyiidae Strobilomyia melania
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura kellneri
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Resseliella skuhravyorum
flower gall Phytoptidae Trisetacus laricis
leaf gall summer generation Adelgidae Adelges laricis
leaf gall summer generation Adelgidae Sacchiphantes viridis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora laricella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Exoteleia dodecella
leaf miner Tortricidae Spilonota laricana
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Caeoma laricis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora caprearum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora epitea
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora laricis-epitea
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora laricis-pentandrae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora laricis-populina
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora laricis-tremulae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora populnea
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsoridium betulinum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsoridium hiratsukanum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Cholodkovskya viridana
leaf vagrant Phytoptidae Nalepella triceras
stem borer Yponomeutidae Argyresthia illuminatella
stem gall Helotiales Lachnellula willkommii
stem gall Tortricidae Cydia millenniana
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara laricis
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara cuneomaculata
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara kochiana
stem vagrant rarely Aphididae Elatobium abietinum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 21.v.2020