organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis senecionana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Aphelia paleana
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora subarctica
leaf hidden Tortricidae Syndemis musculana
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora leucopodia
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora nigriceps
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora amphibola
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora nigella
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora parva
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora pallida
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips podana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Archips oporana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Archips oporana
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora abietina
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora compressa
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora decipiens
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora gerula
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora pseudodecipiens
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora robusta
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora saxesenii
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis cinnamomeana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Philedonides lunana
leaf hidden rarely Tortricidae Philedone gerningana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Lozotaenia forsterana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ptycholoma lecheana
stem gall Hypocreales Neonectria fuckeliana
flower borer Tortricidae Cydia strobilella
stem hidden Tortricidae Cydia cosmophorana
flower borer Tortricidae Cydia illutana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris abietana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cacoecimorpha pronubana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Argyrotaenia ljungiana
leaf bud gall Phytoptidae Trisetacus piceae
leaf vagrant Phytoptidae Nalepella breweriana
leaf bud vagrant Phytoptidae Trisetacus relocatus
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes piceae
leaf vagrant Phytoptidae Nalepella shevtchenkoi
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Calepitrimerus lutocinus
inquiline Tortricidae Pammene ochsenheimeriana
leaf bud borer larva Curculionidae Anthonomus pinivorax
stem borer doubtful Sesiidae Synanthedon cephiformis
stem borer Yponomeutidae Argyresthia amiantella
stem scale Coccidae Physokermes inopinatus
stem vagrant doubtful Aphididae Cinara pinea
stem borer Yponomeutidae Argyresthia svenssoni
leaf bud borer Yponomeutidae Argyresthia bergiella
leaf scale Diaspididae Dynaspidiotus abietis
leaf scale Diaspididae Aspidiotus nerii
leaf vagrant Tortricidae Ditula angustiorana
stem borer Tortricidae Cydia duplicana
stem vagrant Coccidae Physokermes hemicryphus
fruit borer Anthomyiidae Strobilomyia anthracina
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Plemeliella abietina
flower borer Cecidomyiidae Camptomyia strobi
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Resseliella ingrica
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Kaltenbachiola strobi
flower pustule aecia Pucciniales Pucciniastrum areolatum
flower pustule aecia Pucciniales Chrysomyxa monesis
flower pustule aecia Pucciniales Chrysomyxa pyrolae
leaf bud gall spring generation Adelgidae Sacchiphantes viridis
leaf bud gall Adelgidae Sacchiphantes abietis
leaf bud gall spring generation Adelgidae Aphrastasia pectinatae
leaf bud gall spring generation Adelgidae Adelges laricis
leaf bud gall spring generation Adelgidae Adelges tardoides
leaf bud gall spring generation Adelgidae Pineus cembrae
leaf bud gall spring generation Adelgidae Pineus orientalis
leaf bud gall Adelgidae Adelges lapponicus
leaf bud gall Adelgidae Adelges tardus
leaf bud gall spring generation Aphididae Dreyfusia merkeri
leaf bud gall spring generation Aphididae Dreyfusia nordmannianae
leaf bud gall spring generation Aphididae Dreyfusia prelli
leaf bud gall spring generation Aphididae Gilletteella cooleyi
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Piceacecis abietiperda
leaf gall aecia Pucciniales Chrysomyxa woronini
leaf miner main Batrachedridae Batrachedra pinicolella
leaf miner doubtful Blastobasidae Blastobasis vittata
leaf miner Gelechiidae Chionodes electella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Coleotechnites piceaella
leaf miner doubtful Tortricidae Spilonota laricana
leaf miner Tortricidae Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana
leaf miner Tortricidae Cymolomia hartigiana
leaf miner main Tortricidae Dichelia histrionana
leaf miner Tortricidae Epinotia nanana
leaf miner Tortricidae Epinotia pygmaeana
leaf miner Tortricidae Epinotia subsequana
leaf miner Tortricidae Epinotia tedella
leaf miner Tortricidae Pseudohermenias abietana
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Pucciniastrum sparsum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Chrysomyxa empetri
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Chrysomyxa ledi
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Chrysomyxa rhododendri
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Chrysomyxa abietis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Mindarus obliquus
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Keiferella piceae
leaf vagrant Phytoptidae Nalepella haarlovi
stem borer Cecidomyiidae Cecidomyia magna
stem borer Cecidomyiidae Cecidomyia pini
stem gall Santalaceae Viscum album
stem miner Tortricidae Cydia pactolana
stem vagrant Adelgidae Pineus pineoides
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara costata
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara pruinosa
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara piceicola
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara piceae
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara pilicornis
stem vagrant Aphididae Elatobium abietinum
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pachypappa populi
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pachypappa tremulae
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pachypappa vesicalis
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pachypappella lactea
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Prociphilus xylostei
predator Cecidomyiidae Aphidoletes abietis
predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis coni
predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis holstei
stem vagrant Coccidae Physokermes hemicryphus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum circumflexum
leaf scale Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
stem scale Coccidae Physokermes piceae
leaf scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus piceae

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

mod 4.xii.2019