Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Picea abies

norway spruce

synonym: Abies, Picea, excelsa; Picea rubra, vulgaris

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantGeometridaeMacaria liturata
leafvagrantSphingidaeSphinx pinastri
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus strobilobius
stemborerPsilidaeChyliza annulipes
stemborerBuprestidaeChalcophora mariana
stemborerBuprestidaeDicerca moesta
stemborerBuprestidaeEurythyrea austriaca
stemborerBuprestidaeBuprestis haemorrhoidalis
stemborerBuprestidaeBuprestis novemmaculata
stemborerBuprestidaeBuprestis rustica
stemborerBuprestidaeBuprestis octoguttata
stemborerBuprestidaeMelanophila acuminata
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia quadripunctata
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia helvetica
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia nigrojubata
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia godeti
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia morio
stemborerBuprestidaePhaenops cyanea
stemborerBuprestidaeChrysobothris chrysostigma
unknownunknownGelechiidaeChionodes luctuella
flowerborerrarelyTortricidaeBarbara herrichiana
flowerborerPyralidaeAssara terebrella
leafvagrantCicadellidaePerotettix orientalis
leafvagrantadultAphrophoridaePeuceptyelus coriaceus
leafvagrantCicadellidaePerotettix pictus
leafvagrantadultCixiidaeApartus michalki
leafvagrantCicadellidaeColobotettix morbillosus
leafvagrantCicadellidaePithyotettix abietinus
leafvagrantadultCercopidaeHaematoloma dorsata
stemborerCurculionidaePolygraphus subopacus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgops glabratus
stemborerrarelyCurculionidaeHylastes ater
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes opacus
stemborerCurculionidaeIps sexdentatus
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus proximus
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus suturalis
stemborerCurculionidaePityokteines curvidens
stemborerCurculionidaePolygraphus punctifrons
stemborerCurculionidaeCryphalus saltuarius
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus morosovi
stemborerCurculionidaeIps cembrae
stemborerCurculionidaeCarphoborus teplouchovi
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes cunicularius
stemborerCurculionidaePolygraphus poligraphus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes brunneus
stemborerCurculionidaePhloeotribus spinulosus
stemborerCurculionidaeDryocoetes hectographus
stemborerCurculionidaeIps amitinus
stemborerdoubtfulCurculionidaePityophthorus carniolicus
stemborerCurculionidaeDendroctonus micans
stemborerCurculionidaeIps duplicatus
stemborerrarelyCurculionidaePityophthorus lichtensteinii
stemborerCurculionidaeCryphalus piceae
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypodendron domesticum
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypodendron laeve
stemborerCurculionidaeXylechinus pilosus
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus hispidulus
stemborerCurculionidaeCryphalus abietis
stemborerCurculionidaePityogenes chalcographus
stemborerCurculionidaeIps typographus
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus pusillus
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus micrographus
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus pityographus
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus traeghardhi
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes angustatus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgops palliatus
stemborerCurculionidaeDryocoetes autographus
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborinus saxesenii
stemborerCurculionidaeXylosandrus germanus
stemborerCurculionidaeGnathotrichus materiarius
stemborerCurculionidaeIps acuminatus
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus laricis
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypodendron lineatum
stemborerCurculionidaePolygraphus grandiclava
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus subcribrosus
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus cinereus
stemborerCurculionidaePissodes harcyniae
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis duplicata
unknownunknownCurculionidaeHylobius excavatus
stemvagrantadultCurculionidaeHylobius abietis
unknownunknownCurculionidaeHylobius pinastri
leafvagrantThripidaeThrips pini
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia intermedia
rootvagrantCurculionidaeStrophosoma capitatum
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis phlegmatica
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis nitida
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis violacea
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis punctulata
stemborerCurculionidaePissodes gyllenhali
stemborerCurculionidaePissodes scabricollis
stemborerCurculionidaePissodes pini
stemborerCurculionidaePissodes piniphilus
stemborerSiricidaeUrocerus augur
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura scutellata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura pallescens
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura insignis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura styx
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia masuttii
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia annulicornis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura montana
leafvagrantDiprionidaeGilpinia abieticola
leafvagrantDiprionidaeGilpinia polytoma
stemborerSiricidaeXeris spectrum
stemborerSiricidaeSirex juvencus
stemborerSiricidaeUrocerus gigas
stemborerSiricidaeSirex cyaneus
stemborerSiricidaeXeris pallicostae
leafvagrantDiprionidaeGilpinia fennica
leafvagrantDiprionidaeGilpinia hercyniae
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia abietis
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia arvensis
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia alpina
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia erythrogaster
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia fulva
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia alashanica
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia pallidula
leaf budgallPleosporalesGemmamyces piceae
flowerborerPyralidaeDioryctria abietella
leaf budborerolder larvaPyralidaeDioryctria simplicella
stemboreryounger larvaPyralidaeDioryctria simplicella
stemborerPyralidaeDioryctria sylvestrella
unknownunknownTortricidaeEpinotia granitana
stemborerTortricidaeCydia indivisa
leaf budborerTortricidaeZeiraphera ratzeburgiana
flowerborerGelechiidaeDichomeris latipennella
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora leucopodia
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora nigriceps
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora amphibola
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora nigella
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora parva
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora pallida
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora subarctica
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeArchips oporana
leafhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeArchips oporana
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora abietina
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora compressa
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora decipiens
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora gerula
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora pseudodecipiens
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora robusta
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora saxesenii
stemgallHypocrealesNeonectria fuckeliana
flowerborerTortricidaeCydia strobilella
stemhiddenTortricidaeCydia cosmophorana
flowerborerTortricidaeCydia illutana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris abietana
leafvagrantEriophyidaePhyllocoptes piceae
leafvagrantPhytoptidaeNalepella shevtchenkoi
leafvagrantEriophyidaeCalepitrimerus lutocinus
leaf budgallPhytoptidaeTrisetacus piceae
leafvagrantPhytoptidaeNalepella breweriana
leaf budvagrantPhytoptidaeTrisetacus relocatus
leaf budborerlarvaCurculionidaeAnthonomus pinivorax
stemborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia amiantella
stemscaleCoccidaePhysokermes inopinatus
stemvagrantdoubtfulAphididaeCinara pinea
stemborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia svenssoni
leaf budborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia bergiella
leafscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus abietis
leafscaleDiaspididaeAspidiotus nerii
leafhiddenTortricidaeDitula angustiorana
fruitborerAnthomyiidaeStrobilomyia anthracina
fruitgallCecidomyiidaePlemeliella abietina
flowerborerCecidomyiidaeCamptomyia strobi
flowergallCecidomyiidaeKaltenbachiola strobi
flowergallCecidomyiidaeResseliella ingrica
flowerpustuleaeciaPuccinialesChrysomyxa pyrolae
flowerpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPucciniastrum areolatum
leaf budgallAdelgidaeAdelges lapponicus
leaf budgallAdelgidaeAdelges tardus
leaf budgallAdelgidaeSacchiphantes abietis
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaeAdelges tardoides
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaeAphrastasia pectinatae
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaePineus cembrae
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaeSacchiphantes viridis
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaeAdelges laricis
leaf budgallspring generationAphididaeGilletteella cooleyi
leaf budgallspring generationrarelyAphididaeDreyfusia nordmannianae
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaePiceacecis abietiperda
leafgallaeciaPuccinialesChrysomyxa woroninii
leafminermainBatrachedridaeBatrachedra pinicolella
leafminerGelechiidaeChionodes electella
leafminerTortricidaeCymolomia hartigiana
leafminermainTortricidaeDichelia histrionana
leafminerTortricidaeEpinotia nanana
leafminerTortricidaeEpinotia pygmaeana
leafminerTortricidaeEpinotia subsequana
leafminerTortricidaeEpinotia tedella
leafminerTortricidaePseudohermenias abietana
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesChrysomyxa empetri
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesChrysomyxa ledi
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesChrysomyxa rhododendri
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPucciniastrum sparsum
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesChrysomyxa abietis
leafvagrantEriophyidaeKeiferella piceae
stemborerCecidomyiidaeCecidomyia magna
stemborerCecidomyiidaeCecidomyia pini
stemminerTortricidaeCydia pactolana
stemvagrantAdelgidaePineus pineoides
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara piceae
stemvagrantAphididaeElatobium abietinum
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pilicornis
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara costata
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pruinosa
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara piceicola
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaePachypappa tremulae
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaePachypappa vesicalis
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaePachypappella lactea
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeProciphilus xylostei
predatorCecidomyiidaeAphidoletes abietis
predatorCecidomyiidaeLestodiplosis coni
leafscaleAphididaeAulacorthum solani
leafscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus piceae
stemscaleCoccidaePhysokermes hemicryphus
stemscaleCoccidaePhysokermes piceae

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 1.v.2021