Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Picea orientalis

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus atedius
stemborerdoubtfulCurculionidaeTomicus minor
stemborerCurculionidaeIps sexdentatus
stemborerCurculionidaeCryphalus saltuarius
stemborerCurculionidaePityogenes chalcographus
stemborerCurculionidaeCryphalus abietis
stemborerCurculionidaeDendroctonus micans
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypodendron lineatum
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes angustatus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgops palliatus
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus cinereus
stemborerCurculionidaeDryocoetes autographus
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus laricis
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus cylindricollis
stemborerrarelyCurculionidaeOrthotomicus erosus
leafgallAdelgidaePineus pini
stemscaleMargarodidaeMarchalina hellenica
stemvagrantdoubtfulAphididaeCinara pinea
leafscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus piceae
stemscaleCoccidaePhysokermes hemicryphus
leaf budgallAdelgidaeSacchiphantes abietis
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaeAdelges laricis
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaePineus orientalis
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaeSacchiphantes viridis
leaf budgallspring generationdoubtfulAdelgidaeAphrastasia pectinatae
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaePineus cembrae
leaf budgallspring generationAphididaeDreyfusia merkeri
leaf budgallspring generationAphididaeDreyfusia prelli
leaf budgallspring generationAphididaeDreyfusia nordmannianae
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara piceae
stemvagrantAphididaeElatobium abietinum
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pilicornis
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara costata
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pruinosa
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara piceicola
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaePachypappa populi
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaePachypappa tremulae
stemscaleCoccidaePhysokermes piceae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 29.iii.2021