Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Picea pungens

colorado blue spruce

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotVenturiaceaeRhizosphaera kalkhoffii
leafvagrantMiridaeParapsallus vitellinus
leafvagrantMiridaeDichrooscytus intermedius
leafvagrantMiridaeAtractotomus magnicornis
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus strobilobius
leafvagrantadultCercopidaeHaematoloma dorsata
stemborerCurculionidaeIps sexdentatus
stemborerCurculionidaeIps amitinus
stemborerCurculionidaeDendroctonus micans
leafscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus abieticola
stemscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus britannicus
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis rufa
leafvagrantTetranychidaeOligonychus ununguis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura scutellata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura insignis
leafvagrantDiprionidaeGilpinia abieticola
leafvagrantDiprionidaeGilpinia polytoma
leafvagrantDiprionidaeGilpinia hercyniae
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia abietis
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia alpina
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia arvensis
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia erythrogaster
leafhiddenPamphilidaeCephalcia fulva
leaf budgallPleosporalesGemmamyces piceae
leafscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes newsteadi
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora leucopodia
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora abietina
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora compressa
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora decipiens
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora gerula
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora pseudodecipiens
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora robusta
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora saxesenii
leafhiddenTortricidaeDitula angustiorana
stemminerTortricidaeCydia pactolana
stemvagrantdoubtfulAphididaeCinara pinea
leafscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus abietis
leafscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus piceae
stemscaleCoccidaePhysokermes hemicryphus
fruitgallCecidomyiidaePlemeliella abietina
flowergallCecidomyiidaeKaltenbachiola strobi
flowerpustuleaeciaPuccinialesChrysomyxa pyrolae
leaf budgallAdelgidaeSacchiphantes abietis
leaf budgallAdelgidaeAdelges lapponicus
leaf budgallAdelgidaeAdelges tardus
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaeSacchiphantes viridis
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaePineus orientalis
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaeAdelges laricis
leaf budgallspring generationAphididaeGilletteella cooleyi
leafgallaeciaPuccinialesChrysomyxa woronini
leafminerGelechiidaeColeotechnites piceaella
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesChrysomyxa rhododendri
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesChrysomyxa abietis
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara piceae
stemvagrantAphididaeElatobium abietinum
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pilicornis
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara costata
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pruinosa
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara piceicola
stemscaleCoccidaePhysokermes piceae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 10.viii.2022