Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Picea sitchensis

sitka spruce

synonym: Picea falcata, menziesii

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
stemkankerNectriaceaeCorinectria fuckeliana
leaf budgallCucurbitariaceaeGemmamyces piceae
leafleaf spotPleosporalesMycocentrospora acerina
leafvagrantGeometridaeThera britannica
flowerborerGeometridaeEupithecia abietaria
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus atedius
stemborerTortricidaeCydia indivisa
stemborerCurculionidaeDendroctonus micans
flowerunknownCecidomyiidaeResseliella conicola
leafhiddenTortricidaeCelypha lacunana
leaf budborerTortricidaeZeiraphera ratzeburgiana
stemborerTortricidaeCydia coniferana
leaf budborerTortricidaeZeiraphera griseana
stemborerrarelyTortricidaeRhyacionia logaea
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis spectrana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAphelia paleana
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora amphibola
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora abietina
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis cinnamomeana
leafhiddenTortricidaePhiledonides lunana
leafhiddenrarelyTortricidaePhiledone gerningana
stemminerTortricidaeCydia pactolana
stemscaleCoccidaePhysokermes inopinatus
leaf budgallAdelgidaeAdelges tardus
leaf budgallAdelgidaeAdelges lapponicus
leaf budgallAdelgidaeSacchiphantes abietis
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaeAdelges laricis
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaeSacchiphantes viridis
leaf budgallspring generationAdelgidaeAphrastasia pectinatae
leaf budgallspring generationAphididaeGilletteella cooleyi
leafminerTortricidaeEpinotia nanana
leafminerTortricidaeEpinotia pygmaeana
leafminerdoubtfulTortricidaeSpilonota laricana
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesChrysomyxa ledi
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesChrysomyxa rhododendri
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesChrysomyxa abietis
leafvagrantAphididaeMindarus obliquus
leafvagrantPhytoptidaeNalepella haarlovi
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara piceae
stemvagrantAphididaeElatobium abietinum
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pilicornis
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara costata
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pruinosa
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara piceicola
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaePachypappa tremulae
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaePachypappa vesicalis
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaePachypappella lactea
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeProciphilus xylostei
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum circumflexum
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum solani


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 10.viii.2022