Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Pinus cembra

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
predatorAnthocoridaeAcompocoris alpinus
predatorAnthocoridaeAcompocoris montanus
leafscalePseudococcidaePuto antennatus
leafvagrantGeometridaeMacaria liturata
leafvagrantSphingidaeSphinx pinastri
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia godeti
leafvagrantCaliscelidaeWagneripteryx germari
stemborerCurculionidaeDryocoetes hectographus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgops glabratus
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus suturalis
stemborerCurculionidaePityogenes chalcographus
stemborerrarelyCurculionidaeIps duplicatus
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus laricis
stemborerCurculionidaePityogenes conjunctus
stemborerCurculionidaeIps amitinus
stemborerCurculionidaePityogenes bistridentatus
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus henscheli
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus pityographus
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus knoteki
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes opacus
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus glabratus
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus lichtensteinii
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus micrographus
stemborerCurculionidaeCryphalus abietis
stemborerCurculionidaeXylechinus pilosus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgops palliatus
stemgallCurculionidaeTomicus piniperda
stemborerCurculionidaeDryocoetes autographus
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypodendron lineatum
stemborerCurculionidaePolygraphus grandiclava
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis memnonia
leafvagrantDiprionidaeGilpinia socia
stemborerSiricidaeUrocerus gigas
leafhiddenPamphilidaeAcantholyda erythrocephala
leafvagrantDiprionidaeMicrodiprion pallipes
leafvagrantDiprionidaeDiprion pini
leafvagrantDiprionidaeGilpinia frutetorum
leafvagrantDiprionidaeNeodiprion sertifer
leafvagrantDiprionidaeDiprion similis
leafhiddenPamphilidaeAcantholyda hieroglyphica
leafhiddenPamphilidaeAcantholyda pumilionis
leafhiddenTortricidaePseudococcyx mughiana
flowerborerXyelidaeXyela alpigena
flowergallCurculionidaePissodes validirostris
leaf budgallPhytoptidaeTrisetacus cembrae
leafminerYponomeutidaeOcnerostoma piniariella
leafvagrantsummer generationAdelgidaePineus cembrae
leafvagrantAphididaeEulachnus agilis
leafvagrantAphididaeEulachnus cembrae
leafvagrantAphididaeEulachnus rileyi
leafvagrantAphididaeSchizolachnus pineti
stemborerCecidomyiidaeCecidomyia pini
stemgallaeciaPuccinialesCronartium ribicola
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara cembrae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 9.ii.2022