lodgepole pine

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Acantholyda flaviceps
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Acantholyda hieroglyphica
leaf bud borer Tortricidae Zeiraphera griseana
stem borer Tortricidae Rhyacionia duplana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Syndemis musculana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Philedonides lunana
leaf vagrant doubtful Tortricidae Acleris caledoniana
leaf bud gall Tortricidae Rhyacionia buoliana
leaf gall Adelgidae Pineus pini
leaf miner Tortricidae Clavigesta purdeyi
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Cedestis gysseleniella
leaf vagrant Aphididae Schizolachnus pineti
leaf vagrant Aphididae Eulachnus rileyi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 21.iii.2020