Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Pinus mugo

dwarf mountain pine

synonym: Pinus montana, montana subsp. pumilio, pumilio

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root film Peronosporaceae Phytophthora cryptogea
root film Peronosporaceae Phytophthora cinnamomi
leaf pustule Rhytismataceae Lophodermium pinastri
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Lecanosticta acicola
leaf leaf spot Melanconiaceae Leptomelanconium allescheri
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Dothistroma septosporum
leaf vagrant Miridae Dichrooscytus intermedius
leaf vagrant Miridae Phoenicocoris obscurellus
leaf vagrant Miridae Globiceps juniperi
leaf vagrant Miridae Atractotomus magnicornis
leaf predator Pentatomidae Chlorochroa pinicola
leaf vagrant Miridae Pilophorus cinnamopterus
predator Anthocoridae Acompocoris alpinus
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Gastrodes grossipes
leaf vagrant Miridae Atractotomus marcoi
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Holcogaster fibulata
leaf vagrant Miridae Camptozygum pumilio
leaf vagrant Miridae Pachypterna fieberi
leaf vagrant Miridae Atractotomus parvulus
leaf vagrant Miridae Phoenicocoris dissimilis
flower vagrant Coreidae Leptoglossus occidentalis
predator Anthocoridae Acompocoris montanus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus coecus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus tenebricosus
leaf vagrant Notodontidae Thaumetopoea pinivora
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Sphinx pinastri
leaf vagrant Geometridae Macaria liturata
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia godeti
stem borer Tortricidae Cydia coniferana
stem borer Psilidae Chyliza annulipes
stem borer Buprestidae Dicerca moesta
stem borer Buprestidae Buprestis octoguttata
stem borer Buprestidae Phaenops cyanea
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia quadripunctata
stem borer Buprestidae Phaenops formaneki
leaf vagrant Caliscelidae Wagneripteryx germari
leaf vagrant Caliscelidae Wagneripteryx germari
leaf vagrant adult Cercopidae Haematoloma dorsata
stem borer Curculionidae Hylurgops glabratus
stem borer Curculionidae Orthotomicus suturalis
stem borer Curculionidae Pityogenes quadridens
stem borer Curculionidae Pityophthorus knoteki
stem borer Curculionidae Pityogenes chalcographus
stem borer Curculionidae Pityogenes conjunctus
stem borer Curculionidae Pityophthorus pityographus
stem borer Curculionidae Ips amitinus
stem borer Curculionidae Pityogenes bidentatus
stem borer Curculionidae Pityogenes bistridentatus
stem borer Curculionidae Pityophthorus henscheli
stem borer Curculionidae Pityophthorus lichtensteinii
stem borer Curculionidae Carphoborus minimus
stem borer Curculionidae Pityophthorus glabratus
stem borer Curculionidae Pityophthorus micrographus
stem borer Curculionidae Carphoborus henscheli
stem gall Curculionidae Tomicus piniperda
stem borer Curculionidae Tomicus minor
stem borer Curculionidae Trypodendron lineatum
stem borer Curculionidae Polygraphus grandiclava
stem borer Curculionidae Hylurgus ligniperda
stem borer Curculionidae Magdalis frontalis
leaf vagrant Diprionidae Microdiprion pallipes
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Acantholyda erythrocephala
flower borer Nemonychidae Doydirhynchus austriacus
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Acantholyda flaviceps
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Acantholyda posticalis
leaf vagrant Diprionidae Gilpinia variegata
leaf vagrant Diprionidae Diprion similis
leaf vagrant Diprionidae Diprion pini
leaf vagrant Diprionidae Gilpinia frutetorum
leaf vagrant Diprionidae Neodiprion sertifer
leaf vagrant Diprionidae Gilpinia socia
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Acantholyda hieroglyphica
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Acantholyda pumilionis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pseudococcyx mughiana
flower borer Xyelidae Xyela helvetica
flower borer Xyelidae Xyela obscura
leaf vagrant Phytoptidae Trisetacus silvestris
flower borer larva Curculionidae Anthonomus phyllocola
leaf vagrant Aphididaea Eulachnus alticola
leaf scale Diaspididae Dynaspidiotus abietis
leaf scale Diaspididae Leucaspis lowi
leaf scale Diaspididae Leucaspis pini
leaf scale Diaspididae Leucaspis pusilla
stem gall Tortricidae Retinia resinella
stem scale Matsucoccidae Matsucoccus pini
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara montanicola
flower gall Curculionidae Pissodes validirostris
leaf bud gall Phytoptidae Trisetacus cembrae
leaf bud gall Tortricidae Rhyacionia buoliana
leaf gall Adelgidae Pineus pini
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Thecodiplosis brachyntera
leaf miner Gelechiidae Exoteleia dodecella
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Cedestis gysseleniella
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Cedestis subfasciella
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Ocnerostoma friesei
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Ocnerostoma piniariella
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Coleosporium cacaliae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Coleosporium campanulae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Coleosporium doronici
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Coleosporium euphrasiae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Coleosporium kleiniae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Coleosporium ligulariae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Coleosporium melampyri
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Coleosporium pulsatillae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Coleosporium sonchi
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Coleosporium tropaeoli
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Coleosporium tussilaginis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora populnea
leaf vagrant summer generation Adelgidae Pineus orientalis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Eulachnus agilis
leaf vagrant main Aphididae Eulachnus brevipilosus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Eulachnus rileyi
leaf vagrant main Aphididae Schizolachnus pineti
leaf vagrant rarely Aphididae Schizolachnus obscurus
leaf vagrant Phytoptidae Setoptus pini
stem gall Phytoptidae Trisetacus pini
stem gall aecia Pucciniales Cronartium flaccidum
stem pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora pinitorqua
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara pini
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara pinihabitans
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara nuda
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara pilosa
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara pinea
stem vagrant rarely Aphididae Cinara schimitscheki
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara hyperophila
stem vagrant main Aphididae Cinara neubergi
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara setosa
leaf vagrant Aphididae Eulachnus nigricola


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 30.ix.2022