Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Pinus pinaster

maritime pine

synonym: Pinus maritima Lam., monspeliensis, pinaster subsp. atlantica

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus longicollis
stemborerCurculionidaePityogenes trepanatus
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus laricis
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgops palliatus
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus cinereus
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborus eurygraphus
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus lichtensteinii
stemborerCurculionidaePityogenes bidentatus
stemborerCurculionidaeIps sexdentatus
stemborerCurculionidaeTomicus minor
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus pubescens
stemborerCurculionidaeCarphoborus minimus
stemborerCurculionidaePityogenes calcaratus
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus erosus
stemgallCurculionidaeTomicus piniperda
stemborerCurculionidaeTomicus destruens
stemborerCurculionidaeCarphoborus pini
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus mediterraneus
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus numidicus
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus cribrellus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes ater
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes linearis
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes angustatus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes attenuatus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgus ligniperda
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgus miklitzi
stemborerCurculionidaePissodes castaneus
leafhiddenPamphilidaeAcantholyda hieroglyphica
stemvagrantPseudococcidaePuto superbus
leafhiddenTortricidaeClavigesta sylvestrana
stemborerTortricidaeRhyacionia pinicolana
stemborerTortricidaePiniphila bifasciana
flowerborerPyralidaeVitula biviella
flowerborerNemonychidaeCimberis attelaboides
leafscaleCoccidaeCoccus hesperidum
stemscaleMatsucoccidaeMatsucoccus feytaudi
leafscaleDiaspididaeLeucaspis pini
leafscaleDiaspididaeLeucaspis pusilla
leafscaleDiaspididaeLeucaspis lowi
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara guadarramae
stemvagrantmainAphididaeCinara pinimaritimae
leafvagrantmainAphididaeaEulachnus mediterraneus
leaf budgallTortricidaeRhyacionia buoliana
leafgallAdelgidaePineus pini
leafgallCecidomyiidaeThecodiplosis brachyntera
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesColeosporium tussilaginis
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMelampsora populnea
leafvagrantAphididaeSchizolachnus pineti
leafvagrantrarelyAphididaeSchizolachnus obscurus
leafvagrantAphididaeEulachnus rileyi
stemgallaeciaPuccinialesCronartium flaccidum
stemgallTortricidaeRetinia resinella
stempustuleaeciaPuccinialesMelampsora pinitorqua
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara hyperophila
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara maghrebica
leafvagrantAphididaeEssigella californica
leafvagrantAphididaeaEulachnus agilis
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pinea
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara acutirostris


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 28.xi.2020