Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Pinus pinea

stone pine, umbrella pine

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
stemborerCurculionidaePissodes castaneus
leafhiddenPamphilidaeAcantholyda hieroglyphica
stemvagrantMargarodidaePalaeococcus fuscipennis
stemscaleMargarodidaeMarchalina hellenica
leafhiddenTortricidaeEpinotia rubiginosana
leaf budborerTortricidaeZeiraphera ratzeburgiana
flowerborerPyralidaeDioryctria mendacella
flowerborerPyralidaeDioryctria pineae
flowergallCurculionidaePissodes validirostris
flowervagrantCoreidaeLeptoglossus occidentalis
leafhiddenTortricidaeClavigesta sylvestrana
stemborerTortricidaeRhyacionia pinicolana
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeCenopalpus wainsteini
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeCenopalpus lineola
leafvagrantEriophyidaePlatyphytoptus pineae
flowerborerPyralidaeVitula biviella
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes ulmi
leafscaleCoccidaeCoccus hesperidum
leafscaleDiaspididaeLeucaspis pini
leafscaleDiaspididaeLeucaspis pusilla
leafscaleDiaspididaeLeucaspis lowi
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pinimaritimae
leaf budgallTortricidaeRhyacionia buoliana
leafgallCecidomyiidaeThecodiplosis brachyntera
leafvagrantAphididaeSchizolachnus pineti
leafvagrantrarelyAphididaeSchizolachnus obscurus
leafvagrantAphididaeEulachnus rileyi
stemgallaeciaPuccinialesCronartium flaccidum
stempustuleaeciaPuccinialesMelampsora pinitorqua
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara acutirostris
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pinea
stemvagrantrarelyAphididaeCinara schimitscheki
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara maghrebica

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 21.v.2020