stone pine, umbrella pine

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem vagrant Margarodidae Palaeococcus fuscipennis
stem scale Margarodidae Marchalina hellenica
leaf hidden Tortricidae Epinotia rubiginosana
leaf bud borer Tortricidae Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana
flower borer Pyralidae Dioryctria mendacella
flower borer Pyralidae Dioryctria pineae
flower gall Curculionidae Pissodes validirostris
flower vagrant Coreidae Leptoglossus occidentalis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clavigesta sylvestrana
stem borer Tortricidae Rhyacionia pinicolana
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus wainsteini
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus lineola
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Platyphytoptus pineae
flower borer Pyralidae Vitula biviella
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
leaf scale Coccidae Coccus hesperidum
leaf scale Diaspididae Leucaspis pini
leaf scale Diaspididae Leucaspis pusilla
leaf scale Diaspididae Leucaspis lowi
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara pinimaritimae
leaf bud gall Tortricidae Rhyacionia buoliana
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Thecodiplosis brachyntera
leaf vagrant Aphididae Schizolachnus pineti
leaf vagrant rarely Aphididae Schizolachnus obscurus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Eulachnus rileyi
stem gall aecia Pucciniales Cronartium flaccidum
stem pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora pinitorqua
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara acutirostris
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara pinea
stem vagrant rarely Aphididae Cinara schimitscheki
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara maghrebica


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 24.ii.2020