Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Pinus radiata

monterey pine

synonym: Pinus insignis

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
stemborerCurculionidaeTomicus destruens
leafvagrantErebidaeLymantria dispar
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus solus
leafvagrantadultCercopidaeHaematoloma dorsata
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborus dispar
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgus ligniperda
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus mediterraneus
stemborerCurculionidaePissodes castaneus
stemborerCurculionidaePityogenes trepanatus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgops palliatus
stemborerCurculionidaeTomicus minor
stemborerCurculionidaePityogenes calcaratus
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus laricis
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus cinereus
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus pubescens
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes attenuatus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes angustatus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgops palliatus
stemgallCurculionidaeTomicus piniperda
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus cinereus
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborinus saxesenii
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborus eurygraphus
stemborerCurculionidaePityogenes bidentatus
stemborerCurculionidaeIps sexdentatus
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus erosus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylastes ater
stemborerSiricidaeXeris pallicostae
stemborerTortricidaeRhyacionia walsinghami
leafscaleDiaspididaeLeucaspis pusilla
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pinimaritimae
leafvagrantAphididaeEssigella californica
leaf budgallTortricidaeRhyacionia buoliana
leafgallAdelgidaePineus pini
leafvagrantAphididaeEulachnus rileyi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 11.xii.2021