Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


An animal that lives in the nest, colony, or burrow and another animal species. In connection with this site generally a larva that lives in, and feeds on, a gall that has been caused by the actual galling insect. The severity of the ensuing competition varies strongly. Galls that are co-occupied by one or more inquilines often have an abnormal appearance.

Pontania proxima: gall in Salix alba

Misshapen gall of Pontania proxima; the gall was disfugred because of the presence of several inquiline larvae tunnelling in the fleshy wall.