Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Protapion apricans

Protapion apricans (Herbst, 1797)

on Trifolium

Protapion apricans feeding pattern

1122 gall flower head; 1123 intact floret; 1124 damaged floret; 1125 eaten out calyx with emergence opening (from Hoffmann, 1958a)


7-10 Larvae develop in a flower head the gets transformed in a globular hardened mass. Each larva consumes the ovaries of several florets, then pupates in a cocoon in a calyx.

host plants

Fabaceae, monophagous

Trifolium alpestre, campestre, montanum, pratense, repens.


Univoltine, hibernation as adult.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2018).


Protapion apricans: larva

from Hoffmann (1958a)


Apion apricans.


Avgın & Colonnelli (2011a), Behne (1987a), Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1962a, 1977a), Dieckmann & Herger (1985a), Ehret (1990a), Hoffman (1958a), Houard (1909a), Mifsud & Colonnelli (2010a), Podlussány (1986a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Tomasi (2014a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a).

Last modified 6.ix.2020