Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Protapion trifolii

Protapion trifolii (Linnaeus, 1768)

on Trifolium

Protapion trifolii feeding pattern on Trifolium repens

Trifolium repens, feeding pattern (from Hoffmann, 1958a).


The larvae live in the flower heads, feeding on the developing seeds; pupation in the florets. Univoltine, hibernation as imago.

host plants

Fabaceae, monophagous

Trifolium alpestre, medium, montanum, ochroleucon, pratense, repens, resupinatum, rubens.

Mainly on T. pratense.
Dickmann could not find any infestation on T. hybridum, repens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2018).


Protapion trifolii: larva

from Hoffmann (1958a)


Apion trifolii.


Avgın & Colonnelli (2011a), Behne (1987a), Buhr (1965a), Colonnelli, Osella & Cornacchia (2011a), Compte (1981a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1973a, 1977a), Ehret (1990a), Forbicioni, Abbazzi, Bellò ao (2019a), Friedman & Freidberg (2007a), Hoffmann (1958a), Houard (1909a), Podlussány (1986a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Skuhrovec, Gosik & Caldara (2014a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a).

Last modified 24.x.2020