Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi




The head, elongated into a rostrum, and the geniculate antennae of the adult beetles are sufficiently characteristic. The larvae, almost without exception phytophagous, don’t have thoracic legs; often they are strongly curved. Also the adults are plant feeders, often a bit less selectively in comparison with their larvae. Generally they spend some time in spring feeding before the oviposition starts, the so-called maturation feeding.

A small number of species are miners. The larvae of many more species live as borers in stems or roots, often accompanied by galling.

In many species the females bites a wound in the plant, next depositing an egg there. Often finally the spot is covered by a secretion or with chewed plant material.


Heijerman (1993a), Kleine (1924/5a), Morris (1993a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Scherf (1964a).

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