Ceutorhynchus rapae Gyllenhal, 1837
The larva essentially is a borer in petioles and stem. Several larvae live together in a cavity; at that point the stem is swollen. From that swelling now and then a larva may stray into a leaf. The stem above the gall usually dies off, and is replaced by a number of new side branches.
Larvae in April-July (Scherf, 1964a).
BE observed (Curculionidae.be, 2010).
NE observed (Fauna Europaea, 2007; Heijerman, 1993a).
LUX not observed (Fauna Europaea, 2007).
distribution within Europe
All Europe, except Ireland and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2007).
In the UK a simple gall-causer, rather than a facultative leafminer (Robbins, 1991a).
Anderson (1997a), Behne (10987a), Buhr (1964a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1972a), Heijerman (1993a), Hering (1957a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Scherf (1964a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a).