Anoplus plantaris (Naezén, 1794)
Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout © Carina Van Steenwinkel: occupied mine
exit slit (upper surface)
Betula pubescens, Harderwijksche bosschen
Long, full depth mine, starting at an oviposition scar, mostly in the distal part of the midrib; the scar may be swollen gall-like. Frass line variable in width, sometimes quite broader than on the photo. Usually the corridor loosely follows the leaf margin, and the part of the leaf that is cut off from the centre dies off. The larvae live in spring, when the leaf is unfolding; later in summer affected leaves are recognisable because the tip of the leaf and parts of the marginal teeth are missing, by remnants of the corridor and by a general disfiguring of the leaf. The larva leaves the mine before pupation.
Mined leaves are remarkably broad, relative to their length. The length growth of the leaf seems to be slowed down by the oviposition.
According to Roques (1998a) also Populus nigra, but this is not supported by Hering (1957a) or Scherf (1964a).
Scherf (1964a) gives May-July, but all mines I myself found in June (and later) were vacated. There certainly is but one generation. Oviposition in early May; the adults emerge in July (Rheinheimer & Hassler 2010a).
BE recorded (Curculionidae.be, 2010).
NE recorded (Heijerman, 1993a).
LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2007).
distribution within Europe
From the UK, France and Italy eastward till within Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2007)
Robbins (1991a) states: “apparently common [in the UK] in the 19th century, nowadays apparently extinct; possibly mining high up in the trees”. I cannot confirm either suggestion for the Netherlands.
Ahr (1966a), Bachmaier (1965a), Balalaikins & Bukejs (2012b), Buhr (1933a, 1964a), Diškus & Stonis ( 2012a), Haase (1942a), Heijerman & van der Leij (1997a), Hering (1926b, 1927b, 1930a, 1957a), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Roques (1998a), Scherf (1964a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a, Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).