Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cionus hortulanus

Cionus hortulanus (Fourcroy, 1785)

on Scrophularia, etc.

parasite

The larvae, resembling tiny slugs, free on the fruits and buds. Pupation in a cocoon, made out of secretion, among to the old inflorescence.

host plants

Scrophulariaceae, oligophagous

Buddleja davidii; Limosella aquatica; Scrophularia alpestris, auriculata, nodosa, umbrosa; Verbascum chaixii subsp. austriacum, lychnitis, nigrum, phlomoides, phoeniceum, pulverulentum, thapsus.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Balalaikins, Tamutis & Ferenca (2010a), Baviera & Caldara (2020a), Colonnelli, Osella & Cornacchia (2011a), Compte (1981a), Delbol (2013a), Košťál & Caldara (2019a), Lechapt (2015a). Räther (1989a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Sanz Benito, García-Ocejo Izquierdo & de los Mozos Pascua (1996a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a).

Last modified 18.x.2020