Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cionus olens

Cionus olens Fabricius, 1792

on Verbascum

Cionus olens: pseudomine on Verbascum spec.

Verbascum spec., Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Houthalen-Helchteren, © Carina Van Steenwinkel: pseudomine

Cionus olens: mines on Verbascum spec.

more “mined” leaves

Cionus olens: mine on Verbascum spec.

with backlight

Cionus olens: larva


Cionus olens: fresh cocoon

fresh cocoon

Cionus olens: old cocoon

old cocoon

Cionus olens: imago

imago (ex pupa


The larva makes an irregularly branched pseudomine. The full-grown larva leaves the “mine” and pupates in a smooth cocoon, made of secretion, glued to the plant.

host plants

Scrophulariaceae, monophagous

Verbascum blattaria, densiflorum, nigrum, phlomoides, pulverulentum, thapsus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2018).


In this case the larva eats away the upper epidermis and feeds on the leaf tissue, but leaves the lower epidermis unharmed. In this sense he simply does window feeding. But he manages to leave the thick felty layer of plant hairs almost undamaged, and thereby remains practically completely isolated from the outside world. Functionally (and also at first sight) it does not differ from a true mine.
Cionus olens: pseudomine

the larva under the intact layer of plant felt


Avgın & Colonnelli (2011a, Delbol (2013a), Heijerman & Alders (1995a), Košťál & Caldara (2019a), Papi (2009a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a).

Last modified 30.xii.2022