Cionus olens Fabricius, 1792
Verbascum spec., Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Houthalen-Helchteren, 2.vi.218 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: pseudomine
more “mined” leaves
imago (ex pupa 10.vi.2018)
The larva makes an irregularly branched pseudomine. The full-grown larva leaves the “mine” and pupates in a smooth cocoon, made of secretion, glued to the plant.
Verbascum blattaria, densiflorum, nigrum, phlomoides, pulverulentum, thapsus.
distribution within Europe
In this case the larva eats away the upper epidermis and feeds on the leaf tissue, but leaves the lower epidermis unharmed. In this sense he simply does window feeding. But he manages to leave the thick felty layer of plant hairs almost undamaged, and thereby remains practically completely isolated from the outside world. Functionally (and also at first sight) it does not differ from a true mine.
the larva under the intact layer of plant felt
Avgın & Colonnelli (2011a, Delbol (2013a), Heijerman & Alders (1995a), Košťál & Caldara (2019a), Papi (2009a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a).