Rhamphus pulicarius (Herbst, 1795)
Salix cinerea, Belgium, prov. Liège, Flémalle-Haute © Jean-Yves Baugnée
when the mine is lighted from behind, the oval larva with its dark head and prothorax is is clearly visible.
Salix alba, Diemen
Betula pubescens, Duin en Kruidberg
Betula pendula, Wolfheze
Salix repens, Belgium, prov. West Flanders, Oostduinkerke, Ter Yde © Stéphane Claerebout: the larva hibernates in the mine
Generally small, upper-surface, pear-shaped mines, half of their surface stuffed with frass. In the frass-free part an oval, flattened larva. The larva hibernates in the fallen leaf, pupates in the mine. Often several mines in a leaf. The weevils eat, prior to oviposition, a large number of tiny holes in the leaves (maturation feeding; Kleine, 1924-25a).
Betula nana, pendula, pubescens; Myrica gale; Populus alba, nigra, tremula; Salix alba, aurita, babylonica, caprea, cinerea, daphnoides, x fragilis, hastata, pentandra, purpurea, repens, triandra, viminalis.
Larvae in August-October; rather common, but not very conspicuous.
BE recorded (Curculionidae.be, 2010).
NE recorded (Heijerman, 1993a).
LUX recorded (Ellis, Kautenbach).
distribution within Europe
From Ireland to Italy and Greece and from Poland to France (Fauna Europaea, 2007).
As the pictures show, these mines are not surrounded by a green island when in yellowing leaves.
Sometimes the mines are considerably larger in proportion to the size of the larva. Hering (1957a) seems to assume that this is a normal continuation of the development. However, frequently several mines co-occur in one leaf, and this should result now and then in completely mined-out leaves. Such leaves have never been encountered.
Salix aurita, Groote Peel
Ahr (1966a), Bachmaier (1965a), Buhr (1933a, 1964a), Caillol (1954a), Colonnelli, Osella & Cornacchia (2011a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Haase (1942a), Hering (1927b, 1930a, 1957a), Kleine (1924a/1925a), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Maček (1999a), Morris (1982a), Nowakowski (1954a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Tempère (1982a), Viramo (1962a), Vorst (2010a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).