Larinus planus (Fabricius, 1792)
on Carduus, Carlina, Cirsium
one or more weevil larvae live in the receptacle, feeding on callus tissue that is induced by their activities; according to Redfern & Shirley the receptacle also sclerifies. Pupation in the receptacle.
The infection can be distinguished externally from the galls of Urophora solstitialis or terebrans because the eggs are deposited exernally, at the base of the involucral bracts, and covered with brown drop of drying secretion.
Asteraceae, narrowly oligophagous.
Records from Centaurea jacea and scabiosa need further confirmation.
Larinus carlinae (Olivier, 1807).
See also Rhinocyllus conicus.
Buhr (1964a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Douglas, Bouchard, Anderson ao (2013a), Houard (1909a), Morris (1982a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Roskam (2009a), Tomasi (2014a).