Rhinocyllus conicus (Frölich, 1792)
on Carduus, Cirsium
one or more weevil larvae live in the receptacle, feeding on callus tissue that is induced by their activities; according to Redfern & Shirley the receptacle also sclerifies. Pupation in the receptacle.
The infection can be distinguished externally from the galls of Urophora solstitialis or terebrans because the eggs are deposited externally, at the base of the involucral bracts, and covered with brown drop of drying secretion.
Asteraceae, narrowly oligophagous.
A seemingly identical biology is shown by Larinus carlinae, possibly even more Larinus species. For a reliable identification breeding is mandatory.
Balalaikins & Bukejs (2011a), Behne (1987a), Colonnelli, Osella & Cornacchia (2011a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Dieckmann (1962a, 1983a), Mifsud & Colonnelli (2010a), Morris (1982a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a).