Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi



Flies and midges

Adults insects have but one pair of of wings (the rear pair hase been modified into a pair of club-like organs that have a gyroscopic function during flight.). Their mouth parts are adapted to sucking and drinking, sometimes piercing. The larvar have no feet.

The Diptera are readily divided into two very different main groups, the Nematocera (midges), with antennae lika pearl-chains, and the Brachycera (true flies) with short and compact antennae.


Colyer & Hammond (1968a), Oosterbroek (2008a), Richards & Davies (1977a).


Last modified