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Omphalodes verna, Amsterdam

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“hips”, lateral and dorsal

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end of abdomen, and detail of the heavy spinulation of the “hip”

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front and rear spiraculum, dorsal

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mandibles

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Brunnera macrophylla, Amsterdam: mouth field ventral and obliquely lateral

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cephalic skeleton

The larva is described by de Meijere (1925a), Nowakowski (1964a) and Dempewolf (2001a). The mandibles each have two teeth and are of equal size. This implies that the mandibles are not shifted (they ‘do not alternate’). In lateral view one therefore clearly sees 2 teeth, not 4, as in A. ferruginosa, which does have alternating mandibles (Griffiths, 1962a).

Note also the weak chitinisation of the rear arms of the cephalic skeleton and the unusual anal protuberance.

mod 10.viii.2017