Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Agromyza frontella

Agromyza frontella (Rondani, 1875)

on Medicago, etc.

Agromyza frontella: mine on Medicago sativa

Medicago sativa, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 14.v.2012 © László Érsek: vacated mine

Agromyza frontella: mine on Medicago sativa

another specimen

Agromyza frontella: mine on Medicago sativa

Medicago sativa, Hungary, Darnózseli, 1.vii.2016, occupied mine

Agromyza frontella: mine on Medicago sativa

detail of the opened mine

alfalfa blotch leafminer

Agromyza frontella: vacated mine of Trifolium pratense

Trifolium pratense, Belgium, prov. Namur, Jemelle, 29.viii.2013 © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Agromyza frontella mine

Trifolium repens, Belgium, prov. Liège, Angleur, Ourthe, 28.viii.2011 © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Agromyza frontella: vacated mine on Trifolium spec.

Trifolium spec., Flevoland, Reve-Abbertbos, 4.viii.2016 © Hans Jonkman

Agromyza frontella mines

Medicago sativa, USA, Colorado © Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University,


Upper-surface corridor, running irregularly through the leaf, widening considerably. Frass in the corridor part in a broad green central band, with minute black particles at either side. In the final, widened part frass in coarse black grains that may sometimes stick together. Pupation external.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Astragalus onobrychis; Medicago carstiensis, falcata, lupulina, minima, sativa, x varia; Melilotus albus; Trifolium dubium, pratense.

Only exceptionally on Trifolium!


Larvae in May and July (Hering, 1957a).


BE recorded (Liège, Jean-Yves Baugnée).

NE recorded (Ellis).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2007).

distribution within Europe

From Sweden to the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, and Serbia, and from Britain to Belarus (Fauna Europaea, 2007); also Turkey (Civelek, Deeming & Önder, 2000a), Norway, Morocco (Černý & Merz, 2006a).


Described by de Meijere (1925a), Spencer (1976b) and Dempewolf (2001a). Front spiraculum with 8-12 papillae; otherwise closely similar to A. nana.


Domomyza frontella.

parasitoids, predators

Chrysocharis liriomyzae.


The species was accidentally introduced in the United States in 1968. Known as the Alfalfa blotch leafminer (or ABL) it is causing serious damage in alfalfa cultivation (Andersen, 2000a; Darvas, Skuhravá & Guppy, 1981a; Venette ao, 2007a). Also from Germany damage has been reported (Bollow, 1955a).


Andersen (200a), Banthorpe, Edmunds & Warrington (2020a), Beiger (1965a, 1970a, 1979a, 1989a), Benavent, Martínez, Moreno & Jiménez (2004a), Bland (2001a), Bollow (1955a), Buhr (1932a, 1964a), Černý (2001a, 2007a, 2009a), Černý, Barták & Roháček (2004a), Černý & Merz (2006a, 2007a), Černý & Vála (1996a, 1999a), Černý, Vála & Barták (2001a), Çikman, Beyarslan & Civelek (2006a), Ci̇velek, Çikman & Dursun (2008a), Civelek, Deeming & Önder (2000a), Darvas, Skuhravá & Andersen (2000a) Dempewolf (2004a), Gil Ortiz (2009a), Guppy (1981a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1924b, 1925b, 1936b, 1955b), Huber (1969a), Maček (1999a), Masetti, Lanzoni, Burgio & Süss (2004a), Michalska (1970a, 1972a, 1976a), Nowakowski (1954a), Ostrauskas, Pakalniškis & Taluntytė (2003a), Pakalniškis (1998a), Pakalniškis ao (2000a), Papp & Černý (2015a), Robbins (1991a), Rydén (1926a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Spencer (1959a, 1972a, 1973b, 1974a, 1976a), Stammer (2016a), von Tschirnhaus (1999a), Ureche (2010a), Vála & Rohacek (1983a), Venette ao (2007a), Zoerner (1969a).

Last modified 18.v.2022