Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Chromatomyia milii

(Kaltenbach, 1864)


Holcus lanatus, Diemen

ant. spiranchor

penetrating front spiracula; right the anchoring of the puparium in the mine (seen from above)


Elongated, shallow, upper-surface of lower-surface blotch, not infrequently several in one leaf. Frass in strings or pearl chains. Pupation within the mine. Th bifid front spiracula of the puparium penetrate the epidermis; the rear spiracula are dagger-shaped, elongated and curved, and are anchored in the leaf tissue.

host plants

Poaceae, widely oligophagous

Agrostis; Avena; Brachypodium sylvaticum; Catabrosa aquatica; Dactylis glomerata; Festuca; Hierochloe odorata; Holcus lanatus, mollis; Hordeum; Lolium; Milium effusum; Ochlopoa annua; Poa compressa, palustris, pratensis, trivialis.

Milium is the main host plant.


Larae from May to September (Hering, 1957a).


BE recorded (De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus, 1991a).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1924a).

LUX recorded (Ellis: Kautenbach).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia and Iceland to the Iberian Peninsula and Italy, and from Ireland to Belarus and Slovakia; also Thrace (Fauna Europaea, 2007); Turkey (Civelek, Deeming & Önder 2000a); Japan (Sasakawa, 2005a).




Phytomyza milii; Ph. jacobaeae de Meijere, 1924; Ph. intermedia Spencer, 1957.

parasitoids, predators

Pnigalio soemius.


Beuk (2002a) erroneously refers to a “Liriomyza jacobaeae (de Meijere, 1924a)” in the Dutch checklist.

Strong preference for hostplants in shadowed situations (Rotheray, 1987a).


Beiger (1955a, 1960a, 1965a, 1970a), Beuk (2002a), De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus (1991a), Buhr (1932a), Černý (2007a, 2011a), Černý, Andrade, Gonçalves & von Tschirnhaus (2018a), Černý, Barták & Roháček (2004a), Černý, Barták & Vaněk (2009a), Černý & Merz (2005a, 2006a, 2007a), Černý & Vála (1999a), Černý, Vála & Barták (2001a), Ci̇velek, Çikman & Dursun (2008a), Civelek, Deeming & Önder (2000a), van Frankenhuyzen, Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Griffiths (1962a, 1964a, 1980a), Hering (1924b, 1955b, 1057a), Huber (1969a), Kabos (1971a), de Meijere (1895a, 1924a, 1939a), Michalska (1972a, 1976a), Pakalniškis (1986a, 1994a, 1998a), Robbins (1991a), Rotheray (1987a), Sasakawa (2005a), Scheirs, De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus (1995a, 1996a), Scheirs, De Bruyn & Verdyck (1993a), Sønderup (1949a), Spencer (1967a, 1972a,b, 1976a), Starke (1942a), Starý (1930a), von Tschirnhaus (1982a, 1999a), Vála & Rohacek (1983a), Withers (2007a).

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