Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Chromatomyia syngenesiae

Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae Hardy, 1849

Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae: mine on Eupatorium cannabinum

Eupatorium cannabinum, Denmark © Henrik Stenholt

Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae: mine on Eupatorium cannabinum


8038bzChromatomyia cf. syngenesiae: mine on Sonchus oleraceus

Sonchus oleraceus, Nieuwendam

Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae: mine on Sonchus oleraceus

Sonchus oleraceus, Amsterdam: heavily attacked leaf segment

Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae: mine on Sonchus oleraceus

same leaf segment, with the lower-surface puparia

Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae: frass pattern

frass pattern

Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae: mine on Leucanthemum vulgare

Leucanthemum vulgare, Belgium, prov. Namur, Viroinval © Stéphane Claerebout

Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae: puparium in the mine

puparium in the mine


Generally upper-surface corridor. Frass in isolated grains. Ppation in the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber. The puparium mostly is white (but parasitised puparia are black). The front spiracula penetrate as tiny brown hooks the plant epidermis.

host plants

Asteraceae, widely oligophagous (Griffiths, 1967a)

Adenostyles; Ageratum houstonianum; Andryala; Arctium lappa, minus; Artemisia verlotiorum, vulgaris; Bidens pilosus, tripartitus; Calendula officinalis; Callistephus chinensis; Carduus crispus; Carthamus; Centaurea calcitrapa, jacea subsp. angustifolia, orientalis; Chrysanthemum indicum; Cichorium intybus; Cirsium appendiculatum, arvense, helenioides; Coleostephus myconis; Coreopsis; Crepis; Dahlia pinnata; Erechtites; Erigeron canadense; Eupatorium cannabinum; Filago; Gaillardia; Galinsoga parviflora, quadriradiata; Gerbera jamesonii; Guizotia; Helianthus annuus; Helichrysum; Helminthotheca echioides; Inula oculus-christi; Jacobaea aquatica, vulgaris; Kleinia neriifoloia; Lactuca muralis, sativa, serriola, viminea; Leontodon hispidus; Leontopodium; Leucanthemum vulgare; Pericallis cruenta; Pulicaria dysenterica; Reichardia picroides; Rudbeckia laciniata; Schizogyne sericea; Scorzoneroides autumnalis; Senecio duriaei, inaequidens, squalidus, vulgaris, viscosus; Sonchus arvensis, asper subsp. glaucescens, leptocephalus, oleraceus; Symphyotrichum ericoides; Taraxacum officinale; Tripleurospermum inodorum; Zinnia elegans.

Sonchus oleraceus is the most frequently attacked host plant. A serious pest on a variety of plants, in particular chrysanthemums and lettuce (Darvas, Skuhravá & Andersen, 2000a; “chrysanthemum leafminer”).


Entire summer.


BE recorded (Scheirs, De Bruyn & Verdyck, 1993a).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1924a, ass Phytomyza atricornis on Asteraceae).

LUX recorded (Ellis, various localities).

distribution within Europe

Entire Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2008).




Phytomyza atricornis Meigen, 1830 (partim); Ph. syngenesiae; Ph. chrysanthemi Kowarz in Lintner, 1891.

parasitoids, predators

Diglyphus poppoea.


Until the middle of the sixties Phytomyza atricornis Meigen was considered one of the most common and polyphagous Agromyzidae. However, a revision by Griffiths (1967a) made it clear that by that name two closely related species are covered: Chromatomyia syngenesiae (Hardy) en Ch. horticola (Goureau). The difference is visible only in interior details of the male genitalia: neither the females nor pre-imaginal stages can be identified with certainty. Unfortunately, both species are common and polyphagous. There is some difference in foodp lant preference. Ch. syngenesiae lives almost exclusively on Asteraceae, while horticola has been found on at least 24 families of flowering plants, with a marked preference for Asteraceae, Brassicaceae and Fabaceae. Both species share a clear preference for human-dominated, disturbed habitats, and are found most frequently in urban situations.

For the practical identification of mine material some choose to use the old, collective, name atricornis for both species. A somewhat more precise approach is to identify material from Asteraceae as “cf. syngensiae”, and material from non-Asteraceae as horticola.


Ahr (1966a), Allen (1958a), Amsel & Hering (1933a), Askew, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2001a), Beiger (1960a, 1989a), Benavent, Martínez, Moreno & Jiménez (2004a), Beuk (2002a), Bland (1977a, 1992b), Buhr (1930a, 1932a, 1941b, 1964a), Černý (2011a), Černý, Andrade, Gonçalves & von Tschirnhaus (2018a), Černý & Merz (2007a), Csóka (2003a), Darvas, Skuhravá & Andersen (2000a), Dempewolf (2004a), Drăghia (1968a, 1970a, 1971a, 1972a, 1974a), Eiseman & Lonsdale (2018a), van Frankenhuyzen, Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Griffiths (1963b, 1967a, 1972b), Haase (1942a), Hering (1924a, 1927a, 1930b, 1932e,g, 1936b, 1955b, 1957a, 1967a), Maček (1999a), Manning (1956a), Masetti, Lanzoni, Burgio & Süss (2004a), de Meijere (1924a, 1926a, 1939a), Nowakowski (1954a), Robbins (1991a), Rösch & Schmitz (1998a, 2014a), Scheirs, De Bruyn & Verdyck (1993a), Seidel (1957a), Spencer (1954d, 1966b, 1972a, 1973b, 1976a), Stammer (2016a), Starý (1930a), von Tschirnhaus (1969b, 1999a), Ureche (2010a), Zoerner (1969a).

Last modified 6.v.2023