Phytobia betulivora Spencer, 1969
the larva makes a slender, winding, up to 12 m long gallery in the cambium, that descends to about ground level. Here the larva vacates the gallery and pupates in the soil.
B. nigra is a tree of the southeastern United States. In Europe other birch species will serve as hosts.
Černý (2001c), Černý, Vála & Barták (2001a), Papp (2009a, Papp & Černý (2016a), Spencer & Steyskal (1986a), Zlobin (2008a).