Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phytoliriomyza hilarella

Phytoliriomyza hilarella (Zetterstedt, 1848)

Phytoliriomyza hilarella: mine on Pteridium aquilinum

Pteridium aquilinum, Belgium, prov. Liège, Ougrée: larva in the mine; © Jen-Yves Baugnée

17088 - normal mine

Pteridium aquilinum, Grebbeberg

unusual mine

Pteridium aquilinum, Grebbeberg: an unusual image: the mine extends over three pinnulae


Short broad gallery, almost always limited to one leaf segment (pinnula), usually forming a secondary blotch in the end. Pupation outside the mine.

host plants

Dennstaedtiaceae, monophagous (?)

Pteridium aquilinum.

Hering (1957a) adds Asplenium and Polypodium; Polypodium is also mentioned by Spencer (1972a).


Mines found from June to September.


BE recorded (Ellis: Sinnich).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1911a).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia to Austria, and from the UK to Poland (Fauna Europaea, 2008).



Phytobia, Pteridomyza, Dizygomyza hilarella.


Spencer (1973a), basing himself on material from the UK, Germany, Slovenia and Montenegro, described a new species, Ph. pteridii, closely related to hilarella. Only the adult stage is known of pteridii. De Meijere writes that the rear spiraculum of hilarella has 15-18 papillae “but sometimes less”, while according to Spencer the rear spiraculum of hilarella has 12-15 papillae. It is not clear whether de Meijere described true variation of hilarella or had a mix of two species before him. As far as I know no adult material of pteridii has been found in the Benelux so far. Nevertheless the larvae photographed here look rather different, and it does not seem inconceivable that the “Bunderbos type” and the “Grebberg type” each belong to one of the two species.


Andersen (2016a), Andersen & Jonassen (1994a), Beuk (2002a), Buhr (1932a, 1941b, 1964a), Černý (2007a), Černý, Andrade, Gonçalves & von Tschirnhaus (2018a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Hering (1955b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Kabos (1971a), de Meijere (1911a, 1924a, 1925a, 1939a), Michna (1975a), Nowakowski (1954a), Papp & Černý (2018a), Robbins (1991a), Skala (1936a), Sønderup (1949a), Spencer (1972a, 1973a, 1976a), Starke (1942a), Starý (1930a), von Tschirnhaus (1999a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

Last modified 15.xii.2018