Phytomyza autumnalis Hering, 1957
Cirsium arvense, UK, Norfolk, Downham Market © Rob Edmunds
puparium in the mine
puparium dorsal view; note the large conical bases
puparium ventral view
Branched, upper-surface corridor, with very irregular sides. Frass in isolated grains, maximally only 4 times their diameter apart. Pupation within the mine.
Larvae only as late as October-November (Hering, 1957a).
Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
distribution within Europe
Ireland, the UK, Germany, Poland, Moldavia (Fauna Europaea, 2008); also Austria (von Tschirnhaus, 1982a).
Opaque, metallic black, in a pupal chamber (Griffiths, 1959a); the anterior spiracula penetrate the epidermis (Hering, 1957a).
Sometimes Griffiths is mentioned as the author of this species. Although Griffiths (1959a) did extensively describe the species, it was described previously by Hering (1957b). Hering’s description only considered larva and puparium, and was incorrect on a few points, but these facts are not relevant for the priority.
Beiger (1970a, 1979a), Dreger & Myssura (2005a), Griffiths (1959a), Hering (1957a,b), Michalska (1970a, 1972a, 1976a), Robbins (1991a), Spencer (1972a), von Tschirnhaus (1982a, 1999a).