Phytomyza bipunctata Loew, 1858

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Echinops sphaerocephalus; leg Martin Albertini © Rob Edmunds

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sometimes the frass line is quite narrow

mine

Long narrow corridor, upper-surface for most of its length, but with lower-surface segments. Over large distances the corridor follows a heavy vein. Frass in strikingly long threads, alternating along the sides of the mine. Sometimes the frass thread is quite coarse and thick, at other times it is hair thin. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in the upper epidermis. Occasionally pupation takes place within the mine, but then the exit slit has already been cut (moreover, the front spiracula do not penetrate the epidermis).

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Echinops ritro, sphaerocephalus.

phenology

Larvae in June-July (Hering, 1957a).

BENELUX

BE recorded (Scheirs ao, 1994a).

NE recorded (Arnhem, leg BJ de Vries, det Ellis).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

From Sweden to Belgium, Italy and Hungary, and from the UK to Lithuania and Poland; also Thrace (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

larva

de Meijere (1934a, as echinopis).

puparium

de Meijere (1934a, as echinopis).

synonyms

Phytomyza echinopis Hering, 1932.

references

Ahr (1966a), Beiger (1989a), Buhr (1941b, 1964a), Černý & Merz (2007a), Černý, Vála & Barták (2001a), Chałańska, Łabanowski & Soika (2006a), Hering (1931f, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Kvičala (1938a), de Meijere (1934a), Pakalniškis (1990a), Scheirs ao (1994a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Spencer (1953a, 1972a, 1976a), Surányi (1942a), Süss (1982a), von Tschirnhaus (1999a).

mod 1.i.2019