Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phytomyza conyzae

Phytomyza conyzae Kaltenbach, 1859

Phytomyza conyzae: mine on Inula helenium

Inula helenium, Belgium, prov. Namur, Gembloux; © Jean-Yves Baugnée


Pulicaria dysenterica, Susteren


puparium within the mine


Upper surface corridor, often following the midrib for some distance. Frequently the very first part of the mine is lower-surface, and sometimes the entire mine remains at the lower surface. The corridor is wide from the start, with irregular sides. Frass initially in two rows of fine grains; further on the grains become larger and more irregular, sometimes forming pearl chains, and are dispersed less regularly. Pupation takes place either outside or within the mine. When the larva has left the mine a semicircular exit slit is made. When the puparium is formed within the mine the spiracula do not penetrate the epidermis, and an irregular semicircular opening is made in the epidermis in front of the puparium (lower picture).

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Anaphalis; Arnica montana; Buphthalmum salicifolium; Dittrichia graveolens, viscosa; Erigeron bonariensis, canadensis; Inula britannica, candida, conyzae, ensifolia, helenium, hirta, oculus-christi, spiraeifolia; Limbarda crithmoides; Pallenis; Pulicaria dysenterica; Telekia speciosa.

Dittrichia viscosa is the main host plant in the Mediterranean Region, where the fly is abundant (Spencer, 1972b).


Larvae in June-July and Augusr-September (Hering, 1957a).


BE recorded (Scheirs, De Bruyn & Verdyck, 1993a)
NE recorded (de Meijere, 1926a)
LUX recorded (Ellis, Palmberg near Ahn).

distribution within Europe

West of the line Sweden – Thrace (Fauna Europaea, 2008).


Described by de Meijere (1926a); rear spiraculum with 15-20 papillae.


Phytomyza centaureae Hering, 1924; Ph. arnicophila Hering, 1931; Ph. riveriae Hering, 1932; Ph. inulina Hering, 1932.

parasitoids, predators

Seladerma diffine.


Hering (1967a) noted that in southern Europe (Italy, Dalmacia) the number of papillae on the rear spiraculum is considerably reduced, between 9 and 12.

Also Beri (1971e) presents a description of the larvae; but because his material was taken from Clematis montana his identification cannot be taken seriously.


Amsel & Hering (1933a), Beiger (1979a), Beri (1971e), Beuk (2002a), Buhr (1930a, 1941b, 1964a), Černý (2004a, 2011a), Černý, Andrade, Gonçalves & von Tschirnhaus (2018a), Černý & Vála (1996a, 1999a, 2006a), Ci̇velek, Çikman & Dursun (2008a), Drăghia (1968a), Griffiths (1962a), Hering (1924a, 1930b, 1931a, 1932e, 1936b, 1957a,b, 1967a), Huber (1969a), Kabos (1971a), Kvičala (1938a), Maček (1999a).Masetti, Lanzoni, Burgio & Süss (2004a), de Meijere (1926a, 1937a, 1939a, 1941a, 1946a, 1950a), Niblett (1956a), Ostrauskas, Pakalniškis & Taluntytė (2003a), Robbins (1991a), Scheirs, De Bruyn & Verdyck (1993a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Spencer (1953a, 1954d, 1966b, 1967a, 1972a,b, 1973c, 1974a, 1976a), Starý (1930a), Süss (1982a), Surányi (1942a), von Tschirnhaus (1999a), Utech (1962a), Zoerner (1969a).

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