Phytomyza heracleana Hering, 1937
Heracleum sphondylium, Amstelveen, Thijssepark
detail, in transparancy: perforate mine
Heracleum sphondylium, Nieuwendam; only after the mine has been opened it becomes clear how surprisingly little frass has been produced
Heracleum sphondylium, Nieuwendam; the mine has a strong resemblance to a fungus infection
The mine starts with a quite inconspicuous lower-surface corridor that soon changes into an extensive interparenchymatous blotch. The upper cell layer of the palissade parenchyma is eaten away in many places, giving the mine a perforated appearance when lighted from behind. Fresh mines are pale green, later they turn brown; they give the leaves a striking ly diseased impression. Feeding lines absent, frass grains strikingly few. Larvae solitary. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in lower epidermis.
Apiaceae, monophagous (?)
Heracleum mantegazzianum, sphondylium & subsp. sibiricum + verticillatum.
Hering (1957a) included heracleana in his keys to Angelica, Caucalis, Laser, Laserpitium and Seseli. Pakalniškis (1994a) adds Daucus carota, possibly as an exceptional case. Beiger (1960a) and Maček (1999a) mention even more hostplants. However, both Griffiths (1973c) and Spencer (1973a) are doubtful about the occurrence on other plants than Heracleum. One possible reason for the confusion may be that young mines of Ph. angelicae are interparenchymatous too.
Larvae in June-July (Hering, 1957a).
BE not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
NE recorded (Ellis, locally abundant).
LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
distribution within Europe
Entire Western Europe, the Iberian Peninsula excluded; also Bulgaria (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
Beiger (1960a, 1965a, 1979a), Bland (1992b), Buhr (1941b, 1964a), Černý (2001a), Černý & Merz (2007a), Griffiths (1973c), Hering (1957a), Huber (1969a), Maček (1999a), de Meijere (1937a), Nowakowski (1954a), Ostrauskas, Pakalniškis & Taluntytė (2003a), Pakalniškis (1994a), Robbins (1991a), Spencer (1953a, 1972a, 1976a), von Tschirnhaus (1999a).