12421_spir

Ilex aquifolium, Nieuwendam: the front spiracula on their long stalks penetrate the epidermis

A peculiarity of this species is that the larve, just before pupation, eats away the epidermal tissue in front of him, up to the cuticula, leaving a semicircular window. Later, upon emergence, the fly will open this window with its ptilinum.

12421_pup

young puparium in the mine, lighted from behind

mod 6.ii.2019