Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phytomyza lappae

Phytomyza lappae Goureau, 1851


Arctium sp., Nieuwendam


Arctium sp., Hilversum, Zwarte Berg: frass pattern

Phytomyza lappae: mine on Arctium spec.

Arctium spec., Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, © László Érsek

Phytomyza lappae: mine on Arctium spec.

larva in the mine

Phytomyza lappae: larva, ventral

larva, ventral


Long, little widening corridor. The first part is contorted, and its very first stretch is lower-surface; all other parts are upper-surface. The lower-surface part is visible as a light patch when illuminated from behind. The corridor often looks rather angular, because it tends to follow a vein over a considerable distance. Frass in rather large, well-spaced grains, often deposited at the same side of the corridor for a considerable length. Often several mines in leaf, that may seem white then when seen from a distance. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Arctium lappa, minus, nemorosum, tomentosum.

References in literature to Diervilla cannot be but due to xenophagy.

Phytomyza cynoglossi, according to Hering (1930b, 1957a) living on Cynoglossum, is according to von Tschirnhaus (1999a) a synonym of lappae. If the synonymy is correct, something must have gone wrong with the breeding – or the other way round.


Larvae from May till October (Hering, 1957a).


BE recorded (De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus, 1991a).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1924a).

LUX recorded (Ellis: Hockslay).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia and Finland to the Pyrenees, Italy and Thrace, and from the UK to Bulgaria (Fauna Europaea, 2008).



Phytomyza femoralis von Roser, 1840; Ph. lappina Goureau, 1851; Ph. arctii (Kaltenbach, 1856); Ph. cynoglossi Hering, 1930.

parasitoids, predators

Chrysocharis viridis.


The description of the larva by de Meijere (1926a, 1928a) is based on a mix of several species. Similarly the descriptions of the larva by Kuroda (1960a) and Sasakawa (1961a) must be used with caution, since they are based in part on larvae isolated from non Arctium plant material.


Ahr (1966a), Beiger (1955a, 1960a, 1970a, 1978a, 1979a), Beuk (2002a), De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus (1991a), Buhr (1932a, 1941b, 1964a), Černý (2001a), Černý & Vála (1996a), Černý, Vála & Barták (2001a), Ci̇velek, Çikman & Dursun (2008a), Csóka (2003a), Dempewolf (2001a), Drăghia (1967a, 1968a, 1970a, 1971a, 1974a), Dreger & Myssura (2005a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Hering (1926b, 1930b, 1932g, 1936b, 1955b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Griffiths (1962a), Guglya (2021a), Kabos (1971a), Kuroda (1960a), Kvičala (1938a), Maček (1999a), Manning (1956a), Marshall (2017a), Masetti, Lanzoni, Burgio & Süss (2004a), de Meijere (1924a, 1926a, 1928a, 1939a), Michalska (1970a, 1972a, 1976a, 2003a), Nowakowski (1954a), Ostrauskas, Pakalniškis & Taluntytė (2003a), Pakalniškis (1982b), Popescu-Gorj & Drăghia (1968a), Robbins (1991a) Rydén (1926a), Sasakawa (1961a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Spencer (1953a, 1972a, 1976a), Stammer (2016a), Starke (1942a), Starý (1930a), Stolnicu (2007a, 2008a), Surányi (1942a). von Tschirnhaus (1999a), Ureche (2010a), Zoerner (1969a).

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