Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phytomyza medicaginis

Phytomyza medicaginis Hering, 1925


Symphytum officinale, Ackerdijkse Plassen


The mine begins as an upper surface blotch in the centre of the leaf, from where corridors radiate, each with one larva. After a while these rays fuse, resulting in one large, brown, blotch. Frass in irregular strings. Pupation in principle outside the mine, exit slit in lower epidermis (always?). Often the puparium protrudes from the opening.

host plants

Boraginaceae, oligophagous

Aegonychon purpurocaeruleum; Brunnera macrophylla; Echium vulgare; Lithospermum officinale; Symphytum asperum, officinale, tuberosum.

Found in the Netherlands on Symphytum officinale only.


Larvae in July and September – October (Hering, 1957a).


BE recorded (Scheirs, De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus, 1996a, as symphyti).

NE recorded (Ellis, several localities).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

From Lithuania to the Pyrenees, and from the UK to Romania (Fauna Europaea, 2008).




Phytomyza leucomaculata Vimmer, 1931; Ph. symphyti Hendel, 1935.

parasitoids, predators

Miscogaster maculata, rufipes.


The species was described by Hering (1925b) after an imago that he incorrectly had associated with Medicago sativa.


Beiger (1970a, 1975a), Bland (1994c), Černý (2001a, 2011a), Černý & Vála (1999a), Černý, Vála & Barták (2001a), Griffiths (1962a, 1975a), Guglya (2021a), Hering (1925b, 1955a, 1957a, 1962a, 1963a), Maček (1999a), Nowakowski (1959a), Pakalniškis (1993a), Popescu-Gorj & Drăghia (1966a), Robbins (1991a), Scheirs, De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus (1996a), Spencer (1972a), von Tschirnhaus (1982a, 1999a).

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