Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phytomyza socia

Phytomyza socia Brischke, 1880


Upper surface primary blotch, with conspicuous primary feeding lines. Often several larvae in a mine. Most of the frass in a central dark spot. Pupation outside the mine.

host plants

Ranunculaceae, oligophagous

Hepatica nobilis, transsylvanica; Pulsatilla patens, pratensis.


Larvae from July till October, in two generations (Nowakowski, 1958a)


Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

From Sweden to Italy, and from Germany to Poland and Lithuania (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Mandible with 2 teeth, alternating. Front spiraculum with 6, rear spiraculum with 11-14 papillae (de Meijere, 1937a, 1950a; Nowakowski, 1958a).

Phytpmyza socia: post. spiraculum

posterior spiraculum (from Nowakowski, 1962b)


Brown with an olive-green tinge (Nowakowski, 1958a).


Phytomyza abdominalis f. socia; Ph. campanariae Nowakowski, 1958.


According to Nowakowski the exit slit is usually in the lower epidermis, but Pakalniškis (2004a) writes that it is in the upper epidermis.


Černý (2007a), Černý, Vála & Barták (2001a), Ci̇velek, Çikman & Dursun (2008a), Dreger & Myssura (2005a), Hering (1925b, 1957a), de Meijere (1937a, 1950a), Nowakowski (1958a, 1982b), Pakalniškis (1994a, 2004a), Spencer (1976a), Süss (1982a), von Tschirnhaus (1999a).

Last modified 9.i.2019