Phytomyza socia Brischke, 1880

mine

Upper surface primary blotch, with conspicuous primary feeding lines. Often several larvae in a mine. Most of the frass in a central dark spot. Pupation outside the mine.

host plants

Ranunculaceae, oligophagous

Hepatica nobilis, transsylvanica; Pulsatilla patens, pratensis.

phenology

Larvae from July till October, in two generations (Nowakowski, 1958a)

BENELUX

Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

From Sweden to Italy, and from Germany to Poland and Lithuania (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

larva

Mandible with 2 teeth, alternating. Front spiraculum with 6, rear spiraculum with 11-14 papillae (de Meijere, 1937a, 1950a; Nowakowski, 1958a).

Phytpmyza socia: post. spiraculum

posterior spiraculum (from Nowakowski, 1962b)

puparium

Brown with an olive-green tinge (Nowakowski, 1958a).

synonyms

Phytomyza abdominalis f. socia; Ph. campanariae Nowakowski, 1958.

notes

According to Nowakowski the exit slit is usually in the lower epidermis, but Pakalniškis (2004a) writes that it is in the upper epidermis.

references

Černý (2007a), Černý, Vála & Barták (2001a), Ci̇velek, Çikman & Dursun (2008a), Dreger & Myssura (2005a), Hering (1925b, 1957a), de Meijere (1937a, 1950a), Nowakowski (1958a, 1982b), Pakalniškis (1994a, 2004a), Spencer (1976a), Süss (1982a), von Tschirnhaus (1999a).

mod 9.i.2019