Phytomyza spinaciae puparium

Cirsium arvense, Amsterdam: front spiracula penetrating the epidermis

Phytomyza spinaciae: puparium

Cirsium arvense, UK, Downham Market © Rob Edmundspuparium, ventral

Phytomyza spinaciae: puparium

puparium, lateral

Th puparium is bright white. Dark puparia are either dead or parasitised (de Meijere, 1938a; Griffiths, 1959a).

mod 23.x.2017