Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phytomyza spondylii & pastinacae

Phytomyza spondylii Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851 & Ph. pastinacae Hendel, 1923

Phytomyza spondylii s.l., mine

Heracleum sphondylium, Nieuwendam


Long, upper-surface, frequently branched, little widening corridor; sides somewhat irregular. Often several mines in a leaf. Frass in grains that are placed close together, rarely forming short pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in lower epidermis. Sometime the puparium sticks to the leaf. Feeding punctures in lower epidermis.

host plants

Apiaceae, oligophagous

Astrantia; Heracleum mantegazzianum, sphondylium & subsp. sibiricum; Levisticum officinale; Pastinaca sativa.

Pakalniškis (2000a) moreover mentions Ph. pastinacae from Angelica, Cicuta virosa and Conium.


Larvae in May-June and August-September (Hering, 1957a).


BE recorded (De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus, 1991a).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1924a).

LUX recorded (Ellis: Kautenbach, Flaxweiler, Hobscheid).

distribution within Europe

spondylii: all of Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula; pastinacae: from Latvia to the Pyrenees, and from Ireland to Austria; also Portugal (Fauna Europaea, 2008).




spondylii: Phytomyza sphondylii Goureau, 1851; Ph. heraclei Kaltenbach, 1862; Ph. heracleiphaga Spencer, 19969; pastinacae: Ph. angelicella Frost, 1927.


For a long time Ph. pastinacae was considered a junior synonym of spondylii, until Griffiths (1973c) discovered minute but constant differences in the male genitalia. Both species live in hogweed and parsnip, and at the moment no differences are known in the larvae, puparia or mines. Very common “species”, of which Allen (1956a) described the biology.


Allen (1956a,1957b), Andersen & Jonassen (1994a), Beiger (1955a, 1965a, 1970a, 1979a), Beri (1971e), Beuk (1999a), Bland (1994b), De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus (1991a), Buhr (1932a, 1941b, 1964a), Černý (2001a, 2011a), Černý, Andrade, Gonçalves & von Tschirnhaus (2018a), Černý & Merz (2005a, 2007a), Černý & Vála (1999a), Corbet (2004a), Csóka (2003a), Drăghia (1967a), Dreger & Myssura (2005a), van Frankenhuyzen, Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Griffiths (1962a, 1973c), Guglya (2021a), Haase (1942a), Hansen, Hattendorf, Wittenberg ea (2006a), Hering (1932a, 1955b, 1957a, 1967a), Huber (1969a), Kabos (1971a), Kvičala (1938a), Maček (1999a), Manning (1956a), de Meijere (1939a, 1924a, 1939a), Michalska (1970a), Nowakowski (1954a. 1962b), Ostrauskas, Pakalniškis & Taluntytė (2003a), Pakalniškis (1986a, 1990a, 1996a, 1998a, 2000a), Popescu-Gorj & Drăghia (1968a), Robbins (1991a), Rydén (1926a), Scheirs, De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus (1996a), Scheirs, De Bruyn & Verdyck (1993a), Shepard (0000a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Spencer (1953a, 1954d, 1971a, 1972a, 1976a), Stammer (2016a), Starke (1942a), Starý (1930a), Stolnicu (2008a), Süss & Moreschi (2003a), Surányi (1942a), von Tschirnhaus (1999a)m Ureche (2010a), Utech (1962a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

Last modified 7.x.2021