Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phytomyza tetrasticha

Phytomyza tetrasticha Hendel, 1927

on Mentha

Phytomyza tetrasticha: mines on Mentha spec.

Mentha spec., Belgium, prov. East Flanders, Oudenaarde, forêt t’Ename © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Phytomyza tetrasticha: mine on Mentha spec.

secondary feeding lines conspicuous

Phytomyza tetrasticha: mine on Mentha spec.

vacated mine

Phytomyza tetrasticha: puparium

puparium, dorsal view

Phytomyza tetrasticha on Mentha aquatica

Mentha aquatica, Oostvoorne, Tenellaplas

Phytomyza tetrasticha on Mentha aquatica detail

same mine, detail


Upper surface. The mine begins as a short, compact brown spiral, followed by a secondary blotch, often at the leaf margin. Often spiral and blotch are separated by a recognisable corridor segment. Secondary feeding lines conspicuous (in fresh mines). Pupation outside the mine; sometimes pupation occurs earlier but then the exit slit already has been made, and the spiracula do not penetrate the plant epidermis.

host plants

Lamiaceae, monophagous

Mentha aquatica, arvensis, longifolia, x piperita, x rotundifolia.

References to other host plants than Mentha are incorrect (Nowakowski, 1959a).


Larvae from May to August in two generations (Hering, 1957a).


BE recorded (Scheirs, De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus, 1995a).

NE end of August an empty mine was found at Oostvoorne; in 2009 another mine found by Steven IJland in the Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen.

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

From Sweden to the Iberian Peninsula and Italy, and from Ireland to Poland; also Bulgaria and Thrace (Fauna Europaea, 2008).


Rear spiraculum with 23-25 papillae.

Phytomyza tetrasticha: spiracula

anterior and posterior spiracula (from Nowakowski, 1962b)


Beiger (1955a, 1960a, 1965a, 1970a, 1979a), Bland (1994c), Buhr (1932a, 1941b, 1964a), Černý (2001a, 2011a), Černý, Andrade, Gonçalves & von Tschirnhaus (2018a), Černý & Merz (2007a), Ci̇velek, Çikman & Dursun (2008a), Drăghia (1972a, 1974a), Dreger & Myssura (2005a), Griffiths (1962a), Hering (1931a, 1932g, 1957a), Iwasaki (1997b), Maček (1999a), Michalska (1970a, 1972a, 1976a), Nowakowski (1954a, 1959a, 1962b), Ostrauskas, Pakalniškis & Taluntytė (2003a), Robbins (1991a), Scheirs, De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus (1995a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Spencer (1965a, 1972a, 1976a), von Tschirnhaus (1999a), Zoerner (1969a).

Last modified 9.i.2019