Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Botanophila gnava

Botanophila gnava (Meigen, 1826)

lettuce fly

on Lactuca

Botanophila gnava: cephalic skeleton of 3rd instar larva

cephalic skeleton of 3rd instar larva (from Dušek)


A single egg is deposited in a flower head; the larva feeds on the developing achenes. Univoltine, pupation and hibernation in the soil.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Lactuca sativa, serriola, virosa.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2018).

egg, larva, puparium

all stages are described and illustrated by Dušek.


Chortophila, Phorbia, gnava.


Dušek (1970a), Langenbuch (1940a).

Last modified 24.xii.2019