Chirosia betuleti (Ringdahl, 1935)
Dryopteris dilatata, Nunspeet
Athyrium filix-femina, Germany, Harz, Wildemann © Hans Jonkman
Dryopteris filix-mas, Belgium, prov. Namur, Dourbes, Tienne Delvaux © Stéphane Claerebout: living larva
Larva in the leaf tip, that is strongly contorted. An elongated white egg shell is visible at the centre of the mass. The biology is described in detail by de Meijere (1911a).
polyphagous on Pteridophyta
Found by de Meijere end June-early July. I myself found a larva as early as eind May.
BE recorded (Jean-Yves Baugnée, 2009, Gesves, prov. Namur).
NE recorded (de Meijere, 1939a).
LUX recorded (Lambinon ao, 2001b).
distribution within Europe
From Scandinavia to the Iberian Peninsula and Italy, and from Ireland to Poland and Slovakia (Fauna Europaea, 2007).
Described by von Aderkas & Peterson (1987a).
Anthomyia, Chirosia, Chortophila, Craspedochaeta, signata (Brischke, 1888).
Although this species makes a gall, rather than a mine, it was included by Hering (1957a) treated in in his major work.
von Aderkas & Peterson (1987a), Béguinot (2007b), Bellmann (2012a), Beuk, Prijs & de Jong (2002a), Buhr (1964b, 1965a), Chinery (2011a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Dietrich (2016a), Docters van Leeuwen (1936a), Eiseman (2018a), Groom (2011a), Hering (1957a), Houard (1908a), Kolomoec ao (1989a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon & Romain (2009a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), de Meijere (1911a, 1939a), O’Connor & O’Connor (1999a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Roskam (2009a), Seidel (1957a), Spooner & Bowdrey (2012a), Stănescu (2009a), Tavares (1905a), Tomasi (2003a, 2014a).