Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lipara

The larvae of this genus, and the galls they induce, are the centre of a complex community of predator, parasitoids, inquilines and secondary occupants, that has attracted much investigations. See for instance Bogusch, Astapenkov√° & Heneberg (2015a) and Grochowska.

Last modified 4.i.2019