Lipara rufitarsis Loew, 1858
Phragmites australis, Zeewolde, Wilgenreservaat; © Arnold Grosscurt. The picture clearly illustrates that the host plant is growing in a suboptimal situation.
opened mine; the gall is not lignified and little thickened; the gall chamber lies within the shortened internodes.
Phragmites australis, Oostvoorne: “head” of the larva lateral, front spiraculum
mouth field, rear spiracula (dorsal)
The larve begins its existence between the youngest leaves, but soon bores itself down through the growing point and hence feeds upon the inside of the very tip of the stem. The topmost 2-4 internodes are completely shortened, their leaf sheaths are contracted. The solitary, yellowish, larva lies in a chamber just below the growing point; the wall of the larval chamber is not thickened, green, and is not sclerified after the summer. Pupation internal, after hibernation. The maximal thickness of the gall is less than twice the thickness of the stem just below.
Calamoncosis tomentosa Macquart.
The eggs, larvae and pupae are described by Grochowska (2007a). However, contarary to Chvála ao, who stress that the larve is yellowish in colour (as opposed to lucens), she describes the colour of the third instar larva as “milky”.
See, among others, Shaw & Jenning.
Baetens & De Bruyn (1999a), De Bruyn (1994a), Buhr (1965a), Chvála, Diskočil, Mook & Pokorný (1974a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Grochowska (2007a), Houard (1908a), Nartshuk (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Schwarzländer & Häfliger (2000a), Shaw & Jenning (2008a), Spooner & Bowdrey (2012a), Tomasi (2014a).