Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lipara lucens

Lipara lucens Meigen, 1830

on Phragmites

Liapara lucens: gall on Phragmites australis

Phragmites australis, Hungary, Kimle © László Érsek

Liapara lucens: gall on Phragmites australis

ga; party opened

Liapara lucens: larva

larva below the growing point (at richt)

Liapara lucens: larva


Liapara lucens: larva


Lipara lucens: galls on Phragmites australis

Phragmites australis, gall, also after removal of the leaf sheaths; Denmark © Simon Haarder

Lipara lucens gallLipara lucens gall, opened

Phragmites australis, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Arlon © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Lipara lucens puparium

puparium, made transparant


The larva begins its life between the youngest leaves but soon its bores itself down through the growing point and thence feeds on in inside of the very tip of the stem The topmost 6-8 internodes are completely shortened, their leaf sheaths are strongly compacted. The solitary, yellowish white larva lies in a chamber just below the growing point; after the summer the chamber’s wall is sclerified. Monovoltine, pupation internal, after hibernation. The maximal thickness of the gall is more than twice the thickness of the stem just below.


Poaceae, monophagous

Phragmites australis.

inquilines, predators

The following species are mentioned as inquilines in Lipara galls Anthomyza collini; Asynapta phragmitis; Cryptonevra diadema, C. flavitarsis, C. nigritarsis; Incertella zuercheri; Calamoncosis minima; Oscinella angustipennis.

parasitoids, predators

Lestodiplosis gracilis; Cleigastra apicalis; Stenomalina liparae.


Abraham & Carstensen (1982a), Baetens & De Bruyn (1999a), Bellmann (2012a), Brunberg Nielsen (2014a), De Bruyn (1994a,b), De Bruyn, Vandevyvere, Jaminé & Prinsen (1997), Buhr (1065a), Burton, Carbonnelle, Ellis & Schneider (2019a), Burton, Ellis & Schneider (2022a), Chinery (2011a), Chvála, Diskočil, Mook & Pokorný (1974a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Deckert & Deckert (2016a), Grochowska (2008a,b), Houard (1908a), Ismay (00000a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Lehmann & Flügel (2012a), Nartshuk (2011a, 2012a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Spooner & Bowdrey (2012a), Roskam (2009a), Ruppolt (1957a), Schwarzländer & Häfliger (2000a), Shaw & Jenning (2008a), Tomasi (2014a), Waitzbauer (1969a), Waitzbauer, Pruscha & Picher (1972a).

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