Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Americina vittata

Americina vittata (Meigen, 1826)

Americina vittata: mine on Paris quadrifolia

Paris quadrifolia, Belgium, prov Hainaut, Chimay, Virelles © Sébastien Carbonnelle


Large blotch with a group of some larvae. At the start of the mine a group of elliptic egg shells. Pupation outside the mine.

host plants

Monocots (Asparagales): narrowly polyphagous

Cephalanthera damasonium, rubra; Convallaria majalis; Cypripedium calceolus; Dactylorhiza, maculata, majalis; Epipactis helleborine, palustris; Gymnadenia conopsea; Majanthemum bifolium; Neottia ovata; Orchis mascula, purpurea; Paris quadrifolia; Platanthera bifolia, chlorantha; Polygonatum multiflorum, odoratum, verticillatum.


Larvae in May-August (Hering, 1957a).


BE recorded (Gosseries, 1991b).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1939a).

LUX recorded (Ellis: Kautenbach).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia and northern Russia to the Iberian Peninsula, the Alps and Hungary, and from Ireland to Poland (Fauna Europaea, 2008).




Chylizosoma vittatum; Parallelomma paridis (Hering, 1923); P. convallariae (Kaltenbach, 1873); P. beckeri Séguy, 1932; P. paucheti Séguy, 1932; P. hostae Hering, 1955; P. sasakawae Hering, 1955; P. albamentum Séguy, 1963. These synonymies, mainly based on Sifner (2008a), do not go unchallenged; Hackman (1956a, 1957a), Spitzer (1972a), and Nelson (1990a) rather think of a group of closely related species, with in any case paridis (on Majanthemum, Paris and Polygonatum) and probably also paucheti (on Majanthemum and Paris) are valid species. Ball (2007a, 2014a) supposes that paridis at least lives on Paris, vittatum on Orchidaceae.

Phaonia fuscata Fallén, 1825) has, under the synonymous name Helina buhri Hering, 1935, incorrectly been associated by Hering (1935a) with a mine of A. vittata (Hering, 1957a).


Generally four or five eggs are placed together, and the clutch on the photo below is exceptional. Only two larvae in this mine wew fully developed; the other eight had died as young larvae. Yet the mine did not occupy the leaf by far: apparently there was no shortage of food.

The biology of the arctic A. sellata (Hackman, 1956) is not known, but quite possibly it resembles the one of A. vittata. Its larva is unknown.

Parallelomma vittum cllutch

Polygonatum multiflorum, Amstelveen, JP Thijssepark


Chylizosoma vittatum, Parallelomma vittata


Ahr (1966a), Ball (2007a, 2014a), Beiger (1970a), Buhr (1933a, 1964a), Eiseman (2018a), Hackman (1956a, 1957a), Hartig (1939a), Hayhow (1999a), Hering (1920a, 1921a, 1923a, 1924b, 1935a, 1957a), Huber (1969a), de Jong (2002a), Maček (1999a), de Meijere (1939a, 1940b), Michalska (1976a), Nelson (1990a), Nowakowski (1954a), Püchel (1999a), Robbins (1991a), Sifner (2008a), Sønderup (1949a), Spitzer (1972a), Starý (1930a), Zoerner (1969a).

Last modified 9.ii.2021