Placochela nigripes (Löw, 1877)

on Ligustrum, Sambucus

Placochela nigripes: galls on Ligustrum vulgare

Ligustrum vulgare, Meijendel

Placochela nigripes galls on Sambucus nigra

Sambucus nigra, Castricum

Placochela nigripes gall

Sambucus nigra, Belgium, prov. Namur, Eprave; © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Placochela nigripes: opened gall on Sambucus nigra

Sambucus nigra, Belgium, prov. Namur, Viroinval; © Stéphane Claerebout

Placochela nigripes: larva

the larva is orange and unable to jump

gall

Univoltine; hibernation in the ground.

hostplants

Adoxaceae, Oleaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Ligustrum vulgare; Sambucus ebulus, nigra.

The reference to Lonicera xylosteum by Béguinot (2000b) must be a mistake.

larva

Placochela nigripes: spatula

spatula with papillae (from Möhn, 1955a)

synonyms

Schizpmyia nigripes; Placochela, Schizomyia, ligustri (Rübsaamen, 1899). This synonymy, that is based on the study by Tokuda ao (2005a) is not without contraction: Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a) again take ligustri as a valid species, living on privet.

notes

Yellow larvae in Alder flowers that do jump are of another gall-causer: Contarinia sambuci.

inquilines

Arnoldiola sambuci; Trotteria ligustri.

references

Barnes (1948b), Béguinot (2000b), Bellmann (2012a), Bruun (2015a), Bruun, Jørgensen & Skuhravá (2012a), Buhr (1964b), Chinery (2011a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Flügel (2016a), Gagné (2010a), Gagné & Jaschhof (2014a), Houard (1909a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon Schneider & Feitz (2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Máca (2012a), Möhn (1955a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Sánchez (2016a), Schneider (2016a), Simova-Tošić (2008a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1996a, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Postolovski (2007a), Skrzypczyńska (2007a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1988a, 1994a,b, 1997a, 1999a,b, 2002a, 2005b,c, 2006a, 2007a, 2009a,b, 2010a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dončev & Dimitrova (1991a, 1992a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Hellrigl (2001a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Tokuda, Harris & Yukawa (2005a), Tomasi (2012a, 2014a).

mod 20.vii.2018