Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Massalongia rubra

Massalongia rubra (Kieffer, 1890)

on Betula

Massalongia rubra on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Drenthe, Weerwille, 18.x.2021 © Ben van As

Massalongia rubra: gall on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Namur, Nismes, Tienne Breumont, 26.ix.2015 Stéphane Claerebout

Massalongia rubra: larva


Massalonga rubra on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Eerbeek, Grootmoeshul, © Arnold Grosscurt: opened gall with two young larvae

Massalongia rubra gall

Betula pubescens, Eersel, Cartierheide,

Betula pubescens, Nunspeet, huize De Vennen,; young gall

Betula pubescens, Hollandsche Rading, Einde Gooi, 6.viii.2006; old gall


Fusiform galls, alls generally on the midrib. The larvae are white at first, red when mature. Univoltine; pupation and hibernation generally in the soil.


Massalongia rubra: spatula

spatula with papillae (from Möhn, 1955a)


Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula pendula, pubescens.


The galls shown below, several small ones in one leaf and developed on the lateral veins, might belong to Massalongia rubra, but this is not at all certain.
cf Massalongia rubra galls on Betula papyrifera

Betula papyrifera, Belgium, Bruxelles, Jardin Jean Massart, 13.viii.2021 © Stéphane Claerebout

cf Massalongia rubra galls on Betula papyrifera



Barnes (1951a), Béguinot (2002g, 2006a,b, 2007b), Bellmann (2012a), Buhr (1964b), Chinery (2011a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Houard (1908a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Möhn (1955a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Schneider (2016a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1999a, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Skrzypczyńska (2007a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a, 1999a, 2005b,c, 2010a, 2012a,2021a: 51), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Tomasi (2014a), Wahlgren (1963b).

Last modified 1.xi.2021