Massalongia rubra (Kieffer, 1890)

on Betula

Massalongia rubra: gall on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Namur, Nismes, Tienne Breumont © Stéphane Claerebout

Massalongia rubra: larva

larva

Massalongia rubra gall

Betula pubescens, Eersel, Cartierheide

Betula pubescens, Nunspeet, huize De Vennen; young gall

Betula pubescens, Hollandsche Rading, Einde Gooi; old gall

gall

The larvae are white at first, red when mature. Univoltine; pupation and hibernation generally in the soil.

larva

Massalongia rubra: spatula

spatula with papillae (from Möhn, 1955a)

hostplants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula pendula, pubescens.

references

Barnes (1951a), Béguinot (2002g, 2006a,b, 2007b), Bellmann (2012a), Buhr (1964b), Chinery (2011a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Houard (1908a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Möhn (1955a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Schneider (2016a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1999a, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Skrzypczyńska (2007a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a, 1999a, 2005b,c, 2010a, 2012a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Tomasi (2014a), Wahlgren (1963b).

mod 7.xii.2018